RIFLES PART 5:

Other Rifles Captured in 1918

 

7,62 mm Rifle M/1895 Winchester:

(7,62 mm vintovka obr. 1895)

PICTURE: 7,62 mm Winchester M/1895. (Photo taken in Sotamuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (15 KB).

Calibre:

7,62 mm x 54 R

Length:

1175 mm

Barrel length:

710 mm

Weight:

4,3 kg

Magazine:

5, non-removable

Official abbreviations:

"7,62 kiv/Winch. 95"

Country of origin:

Made in USA for Imperial Russia

Prototype:

1895

Production:

1914 - 1917 (Russian Army version)

Finnish use: Thousands used in Finnish Civil War of 1918, issued to home front troops and some artillery units during Winter War. The rifles didn't see any real use Continuation War.

Winchester M/1895 was the last lever action rifle designed by John Moses Browning for Winchester factory. In addition to this it apparently was the last lever action acquired for military use in any real numbers. Its action was more stronger and simpler than the ones used in earlier Winchester rifles for a good reason, as it was originally designed mainly for new .30-03 US Army cartridge. The rifle was produced not only in .30-03 US Army and in .30-06, but also in .38-72, .40-72 and .303 British in 3 main versions: Hunting rifle, musket and carbine. Even with "Teddy" Roosevelt advertising the rifle as "Medicine gun for lions" Winchester M/1895 failed achieving real large-scale popularity before World War 1. Only some 70,000 or so were manufactured for private sales between 1895 - 1915. Then came the World War 1 and changed things.

When WW1 started in 1914 Russia didn't have even nearly enough rifles for its troops. So Russian committee was sent to USA to look manufacturers for Mosin-Nagant M/91 infantry rifles and ammunition. However the committee also got interested about Winchester M/1895 rifles. The negotiations started in October of 1914 and lead month later to signing of contact about Russia buying 100,000 M/1895. These rifles were basically musket version of M/1895 using Russian 7.62-mm service ammo and tangent-type rear sight. Structural changes allowing using of same ammunition clips as used in Mosin-Nagant rifles were added after signing of first contract but before starting of manufacturing. This change and argument about testing equipment used delayed starting of production. However after this manufacturing went quite well and the 100,000 rifles specified in the first contract were sent to Russia in between of June and November 1915. Second contact about 200,000 similar rifles was also signed and last of its rifles were sent to Russia in December of 1916. So, in between years 1915 - 1917 some 294,000 Winchester M/1895 rifles were shipped to Russia, where many of them ended up to Russian troops stationed in Finland.

The rifle proved even lesser commercial success after World War 1. The manufacturing of new rifles continued until year 1931 and small series were assembled all the way until 1940. But only about 50,000 were manufactured in those years. So the total production (including all versions) was about 420,000 rifles, from which almost three quarters had been delivered to Russia. The two Russian contracts didn't prove to be huge financial success either. Due to Russian Revolution Winchester never received all the payments about them. During Spanish Civil War (1936 - 1939) Soviet Union delivered large number of Winchester m/1895 rifles to Republican Spain.

It is not terribly surprising, why Winchester M/1895 didn't gain any other notable military sales beside Russia. In end of 19th century bolt-action rifles were becoming the de-facto standard type of military rifles. Even if M/1895 was chambered for many of the popular military cartridges of the era and stronger than its predecessors, its durability with new powerful smokeless powder military cartridges was probably suspect. Thanks to hindsight one can also just try to consider, how well this design worked in muddy trenches. Several sources note that lever action makes reloading the rifle in prone stance and especially staying low while doing it rather difficult. The tangent-type rear sight has settings for rather over-optimistic distances of 600 - 3200 arshin / archen (427 - 2300 meters). This rifle doesn't have any real safety unless the "half-way cocked" notch is counted as such. Hole in rifle butt was used to storage cleaning kit and tool.

PICTURE: Close-up of receiver and rear sight of 7,62 mm Winchester M/1895. Notice "ears" on top of the receiver, these using of same ammunition clips as with Mosin-Nagant rifles. (Photo taken in Sotamuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (15 KB).

Those Winchester M/1895 that Russian military brought to Finland saw use soon. Year 1918 they ended up in hands of both sides fighting in Finnish Civil War. Winchester received reputation as elite status weapon in that war, unfortunately this lead into large amount of them being taken home as "war souvenirs" by their war-time users. Immediately after 1918 the remaining rifles were issued to artillery and mine-thrower crews, but this didn't last long as Mauser M/98a carbines replaced them in this use already in year 1919. Being rather scarce and having shortage of spare parts they were mostly warehoused until 1939. During this time large amount of M/1895 were given to non-military authorities and small amounts were also sold to civilians. During Winter War some were issued to artillery units and home-front troops. In summer of 1940 less than 1,700 remained. After this Winchester rifles were no longer used by Finnish military, last remaining 503 rifles were sold to Finnish military personnel in 1950. Among Finnish civilians Winchester M/1895 rifles gained reputation of a somewhat better quality hunting rifle. Unfortunately for collectors often the Finnish civilian owners of these rifles got them modified to new larger calibre (8.2 mm x 53R probably being the most popular). This was due to earlier Finnish hunting legislation (for quite some time hunting elk was forbidden with rifle of lesser calibre than 8-mm).

Writer's personal (limited) shooting experiences with Winchester M/1895 rifle: If compared Mosin-Nagant rifles (the standard issue rifle of Russian military at the time when Winchester M/1895 was acquired), there is a world of difference between the two. The first hands on appearances of M/1895 are surprising and conflicting - heavy, long and yet fragile. The lever action is pretty slow to use with its long movement and when operated the lever extends surprisingly far below the rifle. The sight picture is also quite unusual with the very narrow and high front sight post. Operating the lever action in such a way that it works reliably requires swift and determined movements. It also seems to be a good idea to tilt the rifle a bit while operating the action, since this seems to improve reliable extraction of cartridge cases. The magazine design doesn't resemble the one used in Mosin-Nagant in any way, but still seems to work surprisingly well keeping in mind the rimmed cartridge. The rear sight design doesn't impress too much and the whole design makes one wonder, if these rifles were reliable in the muddy fields of World War 1 or in snow-covered forests during Finnish Civil War.

 

10,67 mm Infantry Rifle M/1870 Berdan (Berdan II):

(Pehotnaja vintovka Berdana No 2)

PICTURE: Berdan II infantry rifle (Photo taken in Sotamuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (13 KB).

Calibre:

10,67 mm x 58 R Berdan (4,2 line)

Length:

1355 mm

Barrel length:

832 mm

Weight:

4,3 kg

Magazine:

none, single-shot

Official abbreviations:

"10,7 kiv/71 Berdan" and "107 KIV 71 BERDAN"

Country of origin:

Russia

Prototype:

Berdan II: 1870

Production:

1870 - 1891, total production about 3,2 million.

Finnish use: These rifles saw scale use in Finnish Civil War of 1918, used by Suojeluskunta few years after it. Then replaced by more modern rifles and warehoused. No longer even intended for possible wartime use after 1935. Due to rifle shortage during Winter War (1939 - 1940) they were used in home front. Only very small number used briefly in supplies units may have seen actual combat use. The rifles remained only warehoused after this and were none were issued to Continuation War (1941 - 1944) or Lapland War (1944 - 1945).

Main designer of Berdan rifles was American Colonel Hiram Berdan, who had gained quite a reputation with unit of his own during US Civil War. First version of his rifle was m/1868, which was accepted to Russian military use in 1870 wasn't very successful and only about 46,600 were made. From these 46,600 Colt manufactured 30,000 and the about 16,600 were manufactured in Russia before Berdan II (aka model 1870) replaced this rifle in production. As the name suggests the main designer was Hiram Berdan, but also Russian Colonel Gorlov and Lieutenant Hunnius took part in planning and introducing the design of Berdan m/1868 to use of Russian military. Locking mechanism of Berdan m/1868 was not yet bolt-action in modern sense and reloading it was much more complicated process.

Colonel Berdan continued developing the rifle also after the Russian military had adopted it. This development work lead to new improved rifle, which Berdan presented to Russian officials during his visit to St. Peterburg in 1869. Unlike Soviet literature (in sense of national pride?) claimed all the main improvements of the new rifle were designed by Hiram Berdan. The main difference to older m/1868 was bolt-action locking mechanism sliding in receiver - a bolt-action mechanism of modern sense. The Russians organised tests in which the new rifle proved so superior that they decided to replace the recently adopted Berdan m/1868 with it. The main advantage of the new rifle was due to its bolt mechanism, which allowed much faster reloading and therefore considerably increased rate-of-fire. The improved rifle, soon known as Berdan II, was approved to Russian use in 1870 and some 3.2 million rifles of this type were manufactured. Early on Birmingham Small Arms Company (BSA) manufactured 30,000 of them for Russia, but the Russians stop their purchases from BSA after this first delivery. Soon main Russian arsenals (Tula, Izhevsk and Sestroryetsk) started all manufacturing these rifles.

Russian Army used Berdan II rifle in Turkish War of 1877 - 1878, where they ended up being used against Turkish troops, which among other weaponry had also Winchester M/1866 and M/1873 repeater rifles. Even if Berdan II was much better than earlier Russian rifles, it was still just single shot. Basically this meant that after each shot the used cartridge case had to be removed and new cartridge had to be inserted to action by hand before closing the bolt mechanism. Firepower-wise single shot Berdan II could not really compete with 15-shot lever-action rifle. Losses that the Russian infantry suffered in battles, in which the Turks used Winchesters, were simply appalling. Now, when Russian military had experienced the results of poor rate-of-fire in worst possible way the Russians tried adding magazine to to the rifle, but none of the designs was successful. Only real solution was to get a new rifle repeater-rifle, that rifle was 7,62 mm Mosin-Nagant M/91, which replaced Berdan rifles in frontline use before World War 1. However due to serious shortage of rifles during World War 1 Russian military had to reintroduce Berdan II rifles and carbines back to military use. In 1918 Russian troops stationed in Finland still had Berdan rifles warehoused and their 2nd line troops were even still commonly using them.

In Finnish Civil War of 1918 better rifles were not always available in needed numbers, so also old Berdans saw limited use on both sides. Finnish military was not interested about these old rifles so in 1919 some 2,500 were given to Suojeluskunta (Finnish Civil Guard). As soon Suojeluskunta got better rifles also it started rejecting and returning them to Armed Forces. These rifles remained reserved for possible wartime use until removed from that status in year 1935. However when Winter War begun the situation changed as both Finnish Army and Suojeluskunta found themselves in serious shortage of rifles. As Suojeluskunta transferred almost all of its weaponry to the Army in mobilisation they found themselves with very little rifles left for home front duties. In this situation they had to scrape even old Berdan II from various sources in effort to try keep things going. Also Finnish Army had to start issuing these rifles, which it still had warehoused. Army issued these rifles mostly to training centres and other home front units. Typically units trained with them were rearmed with more modern rifles before entering to frontline, but at least some unfortunate supplies units seemed to have used them also in combat area. However them to see actual combat use during Winter War was extremely rare. Even those units unfortunate to be issued these rifles did they best to gain more modern captured weaponry as replacements as soon as possible. After Winter War some 3.142 still remained in inventory of Finnish Army. Berdan rifles didn't see any use with Finnish military after Winter War. They remained warehoused for whole duration of Continuation War and Lapland War, but Finnish military didn't no longer even plan ever issuing them anymore. Unlike all other rifles used by Finnish military during World War 2 these rifles didn't use smokeless gunpowder in their cartridges, but their cartridges had been loaded with black powder. For some crazy reason Berdan rifles were kept warehoused until scrapping them started in 1945 and in year 1955 the remaining 1,029 were sold to Interarmco and shipped to United States the following year.

PICTURE: Berdan II dragoon rifle. This was rarest version of Berdan II, only about 20,000 were manufactured. (Photo taken in Sotamuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (14 KB).

PICTURE: Berdan II Cossack rifle. Notice the button-like trigger and lack of trigger guard. (Photo taken in Sotamuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (11 KB).

Also Dragoon rifle, Cossack rifle and Carbine version of Berdan existed in Russian use. From these rifles the Dragoon rifle was for riding infantry, Cossack rifle (with its button-like trigger) for cavalry fighting from its horses and carbine for gendarme and units like light cavalry. From these carbines and Cossack rifles were declared obsolete already in 1920's, dragoon rifles got included to infantry rifles and received the same fate as them. Russians had three kind of 10.67 mm x 58 R Berdan cartridges, which can be identified from colour of the paper, in which bullet of each cartridge was wrapped. White paper indicated rifle-cartridge with normal gunpowder charge, pink paper indicates carbine-cartridge (with reduced gunpowder charge) for carbines and blue paper was used to mark ammunition (with increased gunpowder charge) for Gatling-Gorlov machinegun. This ammunition proved unreliable already during Finnish Civil War, so we can only guess exactly how unreliable it must have been some three decades later.

 

 

Japanese Rifles:

 

6,55 mm Infantry Rifle and Carbine M/97 Japanese:

(6,50 mm Meiji 30th Year Type)

PICTURE: Japanesese infantry rifle M/97 (Photo taken in Sotamuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (12 KB).

Calibre:

6,50 mm x 50 Arisaka

Length:

1275 mm (infantry rifle) / 965 mm (carbine)

Barrel length:

800 mm (infantry rifle) / 480 mm (carbine)

Weight:

4,0 kg (infantry rifle) / 3,3 kg (carbine)

Magazine:

5, non-removable

Official abbreviations:

"6,55 kiv/jap (m. II)" & "6,55 kiv/jap rv (m. II)"

Country of origin:

Japan

Prototype:

1896 (Meiji 29th Year)

Finnish use: About 8,000 infantry rifles and minuscule amount of carbines M/97 were used in Finnish Civil War of 1918. Suojeluskunta (Finnish Civil Guard) used some in 1920's.

The Meiji 30th Year Type used in Japanese naming of this infantry rifle and carbine comes from Japanese calendar. They were introduced 30th year of ruling Meiji-emperor - which translates as year 1897 in western calendar. They were approved to use of Japanese military two years later - year 1899. Roots of design used in these rifles are clearly based to Mauser-rifles (possibly Mauser Gewehr 88, which the Japanese faced in Sino-Japanese War of 1894), but especially bolt structure has some distinct features, which could be related to Mannlicher rifles. The rifle bolt of Type 30 can be recognised hook-shaped safety hook in bolt head. Indeed it seems likely that the introduction of these rifles was due to less than favourable experiences during this war with the rifles, which the Japanese used at the time - Murata infantry rifle and carbine. While both 8-mm Murata Meiji 22nd year (model 1899) infantry rifle and 8-mm Murata Meiji 27th Year (model 1894) cavalry carbine were basically brand new rifles during that war, the development of bolt-action magazine rifles exactly that time was so fast, that with their tubular magazines they proved already old-fashioned. Type 30 rifle and carbine were designed by a committee, which was lead by Colonel Nariakira Arisaka. These weapons saw use in Japanese-Russian war of 1904 - 1905. Use in a war also revealed a lot of problems in M/97 and lead these rifles being replaced in production with new Meiji 38th Year Type (1905) rifle and carbine. The total production run of Type 30 infantry rifle seems to have been over 500,000 rifles, while the total production of carbine-version was estimated only around 40,000. At that time only Japanese factory manufacturing rifles was Koishikawa arsenal in Tokyo, so all of these rifles were manufactured there. Japanese participation in actual fighting during World War 1 was basically limited to capturing of German Kiautschou protectorate in China, so unlike their European allies they didn't have to face acute shortage of rifles in beginning of it. So Japan sold these rifles and carbines in large numbers to Great Britain and Russia during WW1. In Great Britain M/97 rifles were issued training units, Navy and Flying Corps and known as Rifle, Magazine, .256 Pattern 1900. Suffering from even more disastrous shortage of rifles the Russians could not afford to issue these rifles only as training equipment. So they issued Japanese rifles also as part of usual weaponry issued mainly to their non-frontline units, this included their troops stationed in Finland.

 

6,55 mm Rifle M/02 Japanese:

(6,50 mm Meiji 35th Year Type)

PICTURE: Japanese rifle M/02 (Photo taken in Sotamuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (12 KB).

Calibre:

6,50 mm x 50 Arisaka

Length:

1275 mm

Barrel length:

800 mm

Weight:

4,3 kg

Magazine:

5, non-removable

Official abbreviations:

"6,55 kiv/jap (m. I)"

Country of origin:

Japan

Prototype:

1902?

Finnish use: Less than 2,500 rifles used in Finnish Civil War of 1918. Suojeluskunta (Finnish Civil Guard) used some in 1920's. During World War 2 used in small numbers by Finnish merchant navy and home front troops.

Some sources claim that this rifle was developed for Japanese Navy and especially to its naval infantry, but according others it was simply improved rifle model based to earlier Type 30 developed for Japanese military. Few years of use had already revealed some problems with Type 30 (model 1897) rifles and carbines, so this rifle designed by Captain Kijiro Nambu had several improvements introduced to solve them. However it was produced only few years before rifle Type 38 (model 1905) replaced also it, which suggests that it proved less than satisfactory. This rifle was manufactured in Koishikawa arsenal in Tokyo and the total production has been estimated have been only around 35,000 - 36,000 rifles. It is rather interesting to note, that larger number of these rifles was manufactured for import. The Japanese sold some 43,000 to Siam (Thailand) in 1925 - 1928. After Japanese military had been rearmed with Type 38 rifles they had no longer need for old Type 35, so also these were sold to Russia during World War 1. Russian military, which had serious shortage of rifles, issued them mainly to their non-frontline units (such as the ones stationed in Finland). Rear sight of this rifle is maybe the easiest to spot characteristic for identifying it. Due to rather small numbers in which they were manufactured, both Type 30 rifles and their bayonets are quite valuable collector's items.

 

6,55 mm Infantry Rifle and Carbine M/05 Japanese:

(6,50 mm Meiji 38th Year Type)

PICTURE: Japanese infantry rifle M/05 (Photo taken in Sotamuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (11 KB).

PICTURE: Japanese carbine M/05 (Photo taken in Sotamuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (13 KB).

Calibre:

6,50 mm x 50 Arisaka

Length:

1275 mm (infantry rifle) / 965 mm (carbine)

Barrel length:

800 mm (infantry rifle) / 490 mm (carbine)

Weight:

3,5 kg (infantry rifle) / 3,0 kg (carbine)

Magazine:

5, non-removable

Official abbreviations:

"6,55 kiv/jap (m. III)" & "6,55 kiv/jap rv (m. III)"

Country of origin:

Japan

Prototype:

1906

Finnish use: Over 7,000 infantry rifles and few hundred carbines were used in Finnish Civil War of 1918. Suojeluskunta (Finnish Civil Guard) used some in 1920's.

Infantry rifle and carbine Type 38 (model 1905) replaced infantry rifle Type 30 (model 97), carbine Type 30 (model 1897) and rifle Type 35 (model 1902) in Japanese use already before World War 1. The main designer for this rifle was Captain Kijiro Nambu, who designed also earlier Type 35 rifle. The rifle bolt used in it was more clearly related to ones used in Mauser designs than in earlier Japanese rifles. With old Type 30 and Type 35 rifles and carbines the Japanese sold to Great Britain and Russia during World War 1 they also sold considerable number of new Type 38 rifles and carbines. Bolt structure with and metal dust cover plate moving with the bolt make separating Type 38 from other Japanese military rifles easy. Unlike earlier rifles this one also saw large-scale use with Japanese military during World War 2. Several arsenals manufactured it from year 1906 to 1940, at which point it replaced in production by Type 99 rifle. Estimated total production of this rifle was about 3 million infantry rifles and some 300,000 carbines. The arsenals manufacturing it included Koshikawa in Tokyo, Kokura, Nagoya, Jinsen (in Korea) and Mukden (in Manchuria). But the ones that ended up to Finland were obviously all made in Koishikawa, which was only Japanese rifle manufacturer before year 1923. Like all Japanese 6.5-mm rifles also of Type 38 could be reloaded with 5-round chargers, which closely resemble the ones used in Mauser-rifles. British troops called Type 38 rifles Rifle, Magazine, .256 Pattern 1907.. The total number of Japanese rifles sold to Great Britain during World War 1 was at least 150,000. The British issued these to their Navy, Flying Corps and training units to free more Lee-Enfield rifles to frontline units. From these 150,000 rifles about 128,000 were sent from Britain to Russia in year 1917. October 1921 British declared Japanese rifles still remaining in their use obsolete. The total number of rifles sold by Japan to Russia seems to have been around 600,000. Most if not all of these 600,000 rifles were delivered around 1914 - 1915. Supposedly among the Type 38 rifles sold to Russia were also 30,000 rifles made in 7 mm x 57 Mauser caliber and originally intended for Mexico. In addition to these Russians probably had at least few thousand rifles captured from Russo - Japanese war of 1904 - 1905, which were issued along the newly acquired rifles. With Russian military the Japanese rifles saw bit more action and the ones, which survived Russian Civil War, were later shipped to Spanish Civil War.

 

Japanese rifles in Finland:

Japanese rifles and carbines were used in large numbers during Finnish Civil War of 1918. There seem to have been numerous Russian units stationed to Finland equipped with these rifles. In addition Russian Bolsheviks supplied large number of these rifles to Finnish Red Guards for the war. As a result Finnish White Army captured them in large numbers. When the Civil War ended Finnish military had about 24,000 Japanese rifles and former participants of the war returned thousands more during the couple of years following the Civil War. Considering the later inventory reports it seems likely that as much as 10,000 rifles were added to inventory in few years after the war and the total number in Finnish use would have been around 34,000 - 36,000. The career of these rifles in large-scale use of Finnish Army was very short - years 1918 - 1920.

PICTURE: Receiver and rear sight areas of some Japanese rifles used in Finland. From the top to bottom: Rifle M/02, rifle M/05 and carbine M/05. (Photo taken in Sotamuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (90 KB).

Finnish military personnel had some problems identifying Japanese rifles and carbines, so a special naming system was developed and used until late 1920's. The names given in this naming system looked like this:

- "Japanese infantry rifle m. II" (infantry rifle M/97 / Meiji 30th Year Type).

- "Japanese carbine m. II" (carbine M/97 / Meiji 30th Year Type).

- "Japanese infantry rifle m. I" (rifle M/02 / Meiji 35th Year Type).

- "Japanese infantry rifle m. III" (infantry rifle M/05 / Meiji 38 Year Type).

- "Japanese carbine m. III" (carbine M/05 / Meiji 38th Year Type).

Already year 1919 Finland sold some 10,000 Japanese rifles to Estonia, where they were used by Estonian troops in their War of Independence. After the war in Estonia the rifles remained in use of Kaitseliit (Estonian Civil Guard), who got them modified to calibre .303 British before World War 2 and seems to have renamed them KL .303. Back in Finland around 1919 - 1920 some 15,000 Japanese rifles were given to Suojeluskunta (Finnish Civil Guard) soon after Finnish Civil War. This was part of the re-organising in which Finnish Army transferred its mixed weaponry to Civil Guard and adopted Mosin-Nagant M/1891 as its standard infantry rifle. After this about 8,000 of the Japanese rifles still remained storage in Army Depots. The active career of these rifles with Civil Guard didn't turn out to be very long either. Also the rifles issued to Civil Guard were little by little replaced with Mosin-Nagant rifles in 1920's. So the Japanese rifles of Civil Guard were gathered back and warehoused in late 1920's. It is worth noting that Suojeluskunta ordered 500 new rifle barrels for Japanese rifles from Swiss manufacturer S.I.G (Schweitzerische Industrie-Gesellschaft) in April of 1923. Nowadays these rifles with S.I.G. barrels are extremely rare. About 8,000 rifles that had yet remained in Army Depots were sold to Albania in 1928. All remaining Japanese rifles (about 15,000) of Suojeluskunta were sold with spare-parts and ammo to Oy Transbaltic Ab, which sold them abroad 1932 - 1934. The few hundred Japanese rifles, which still remained in Finland year 1939 saw use with Finnish merchant navy and Civil Guard in home front during World War 2. Those rifles, which survived the war, were sold to civilians soon after it and were usually modified as hunting rifles. Ammunition (6.5 mm x 50 Arisaka) was never manufactured in Finland, all ammunition used was either World War 1 era or older ammunition, which had been manufactured in Japan and Great Britain.


SUGGESTED LINKS FOR MORE INFO:

Japaneseweapons.net Excellent website about Japanese weapons.

Carbines for Collectors

Military rifles in the age of transition More about Berdan rifles

The Winchester Collector, Official Website of the Winchester Arms Collectors Association More info about Winchester rifles.


SOURCES:

Markku Palokangas: Sotilaskäsiaseet Suomessa 1918 - 1988 osat 1 - 3 (= Military Small Arms in Finland 1918 - 1988 parts 1- 3)

Timo Hyytinen: Arma Fennica 2, sotilasaseet (Arma Fennica 2, military weapons)

N.V. Hersalo: Suojeluskuntain historia, part 2

Bruno Bogdnovic and Ivan Valencak: Das Groze Buch der klassischen feuerwaffen

Ian V. Hogg and John Wells: Military Smallarms of 20th Century.

John Walter: Allied Small Arms of World War One.

Jan Kronlund: Suomen Puolustuslaitos 1918 - 1939 (= Finnish Defence Department 1918 - 1939)

Mika Pitkänen and Timo Simpanen: Suomalaiset sotilaspatruunat 1918-1945 / The Finnish military cartridges 1918-1945.

Article: Tsaarin Winchester m.1895 by Aki Savunen in Ase magazine vol. 2/1984.

Article: Iso lääke, Winchester malli 1895 by Mika Vuolle in Ase-lehti magazine vol. 2/95.

Article: Winchester M1895, Browningin viimeinen vipulukko by Pekka Suuronen and Jouko Savonen in Kaliberi magazine vol. 2/2009.

Article: Nallilukosta Berdaniin, III osa by Matti Virtanen in Ase magazine vol. 1/1983.

Article: Nallilukosta Berdaniin, IV osa by Matti Virtanen in Ase magazine vol. 2/1983.

Article: Japanilaiset kiväärit Suomessa by Risto Suikkari in Ase-lehti magazine vol 1/2007.

Article: Tuntematon lahden takaa, Arsenal Tallinn by Toe Nömm in Ase-lehti magazine vol. 1/92

Aleksandr Borisovitsh Zhuk: Ase-Atlas, Maailman käsiaseet (= Weapons Atlas, World's Handguns)

Special thanks to Sotamuseo (Finnish Military Museum), Helsinki.


Last updated 31st of October 2009
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