REVOLVERS & PISTOLS PART 2:

Mauser M/96, Nagant and TT-33:

 

 

7,63 mm and 9 mm M/96 Mauser "Ukko-Mauser":

(Mauser-selbstladepistole C96)

PICTURE: 9-mm Mauser M/96 pistol, red "9" carved to handle indicates this as 9 mm version. (Photo taken in Sotamuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (76 KB).

Calibre:

7,63 mm x 25 Mauser / 9 mm x 19 Parabellum/Luger

Length:

295 mm

Barrel length:

140 mm

Weight:

1140 g

Magazine:

10, non-removable (typically)

Official abbreviations:

"7,63 pist/Mauser" and "765 PIST MAU"

"9,00 pist/Mauser" and "900 PIST MAU"

Country of origin:

Germany

Prototype:

1895

Production:

1897 - 1939, over 1 million made in about 30 variations.

Finnish use: Used by both sides in Finnish Civil War of 1918, used by home-front troops during World War 2.

Mauser C96 pistol was the first commercially successful mass-production automatic pistol. Brothers Fidel, Friedrich and Josef Feederle designed the pistol for Mauser factory. Mass-production of C96 started in 1897. Some 300,000 pistols C96 of 7,63 mm x calibre were manufactured between 1897 - 1918. From 1907/1908 to 1914 the Mauser pistol was also manufactured in more powerful 9 mm x 25 Mauser calibre, but the calibre didn't achieve much of a success. One of the later famous early users of Mauser C96 was Winston Churchill, who used privately purchased C96 pistol in Sudanese campaign and Boor War. The design of C96 pistol went through several improvements during the production, maybe the most important was new safety (Neues Sicherung = NS) introduced in 1912. German Army wasn't interested about the Mauser pistol before World War 1, but once the war started the situation changed. During World War 1 German Army needed much more pistols that what it already had and when Parabellum P-08 (standard issue German Army pistol) production was not nowhere large enough, they turned their attention to Mauser C96. However German Army didn't want to complicate their ammunition supply by introducing also 7,63 mm x 25 cartridges to their ammunition inventory, so new 9 mm x 19 calibre version of C96 was designed and introduced to manufacturing. This 9 mm x 19 calibre version is also known as model 1916, after the year it was introduced to production. The German Army ordered some 150,000 pistols C96 in calibre 9 mm x 19, from these about 136,000 were delivered between 1916 - 1918. Year 1920 Mauser started production of 7.63-mm calibre "bolo"-version (Russian Bolsheviks were one of the main customers for this pistol), which had shorter barrel (as Versailles treaty forbid German industry manufacturing 9 mm x 19 calibre pistols or pistols with 100-mm or longer barrels). Further improved safety known as Universalsicherung was introduced in 1930's. Also in 1930's Mauser introduced new select-fire (capable to both full-automatic and semiautomatic fire) version Reihenfeuer Pistole also known as M 712". The success of select-fire M 712 Mauser pistol was reasonable, but not huge - some 100,000 were manufactured before its manufacturing came to an end. The main market for the select fire version was China, whose markets Spanish Royal and Astra had already earlier flooded with their own select-fire versions. The select-fire version typically had 10- or 20-round removable magazines. The other versions of C96 usually had 6- or 10-shot non-removable magazine, which was loaded with cartridge clip from the top. Typical equipment for Mauser C96 contained wood holster, which could also be used attached to pistol to give it rifle-like butt. All in all Mauser C-96 was produced in about 30 main variations and remained in production until 1939 (exception: 7,800 were still manufactured for German Luftwaffe in 1940). During early part of World War 2 German Luftwaffe and Waffen-SS issued C96 pistols. Copies of C96 were also made in Spain (Astra, Royal and Azul), China and Korea.

Mauser C96 pistols are commonly known as "broom-handle" in English-speaking countries. This nickname comes from their pistol grips, which remind end of the broomstick. From technical point of view Mauser C96 pistols are rather unusual pistol design using short barrel recoil - besides more or less exact copies there has been very little trying of developing their structural design for a very long time. The obvious reason for this the complexity of their structural design and certain few details, which never gained too much popularity. For example both barrel and slide of these pistols are one single piece machined from solid steel - and a very complicated piece of steel for that. Mauser C96 has adjustable tangent-type rear sight. Mauser manufactured the pistol in small numbers also in 9 mm x 25 Mauser Export caliber, later some Chinese copies of Mauser C96 were also manufactured in .45 ACP caliber.

PICTURE: 7.63-mm Mauser M/96 pistol with shoulder stock holster typical to this pistol. (Photo taken in Uusimaa/Nyland Brigade). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (83 KB).

At 1917 - 1918 Germany was arming Finnish nationalists (which later were the basis of Finnish Civil Guard during Finnish Civil War of 1918). Freight ships and German submarine UC-57 delivered weapons to Finland for planned uprising against Russian military, among weapons delivered were over 1,000 C96 Mauser pistols of both 7.63 x 25 and 9 x 19 calibre. Finnish Red Guard and Russian Gendarmes managed to intercept some of the weapons deliveries and used these pistols also in smaller numbers during 1918 war. Finnish White Army issued these pistols mostly to officers and leaders of various levels. When Civil War of 1918 ended large amount of men issued with these pistols didn't return them, but took them home as war souvenirs.

After pistols M/19 and M/23 had been bought in large numbers Finnish Army came to conclusion that old Mauser M/96 pistols were not needed anymore, so they were transferred to Suojeluskunta (Finnish Civil Guard). During World War 2 the remaining M/96 pistols were mostly used in home front. Summer of 1940 still 614 Mauser M/96 pistols remained, this included 271 pistols in 7,63 x 25 and 343 in 9 x 19 calibre. Finnish soldiers gave the pistol nickname "Ukko-Mauser" (= Old man Mauser. Smaller 7,65 mm Mauser M/1914 pistol was known as "Akka-Mauser" aka "Old woman Mauser"). While these pistols can quite accurate I doubt anybody would claim their pistol grip ergonomic. As to be expected from first successful automatic pistol structure of the weapon is also quite complicated and therefore both disassembling and putting the pistol back together quite difficult. It seems that on the long run especially 9-mm version had slight durability problem: Often their slides started to stretch in specimens, which had been fired a lot. However this might be at least partly due to 9 mm x 19 caliber hot submachinegun ammunition misused by Finnish military also in pistols during World War 2. Year 1960 the remaining Mauser M/96 pistols were sold to Interarmco and shipped abroad.

Writer's limited personal shooting experiences with 7.63-mm Mauser M/96 pistol: As noted, the structural design and basic operating principle of this pistol are rather unusual. Fixed magazine that is located in front of the trigger is filled with 10-round cartridge clip reminding the ones used in bolt action rifles of the era. Removal of the clip from top of the fixed magazine allows bolt moving forward, leaving the pistol ready to fire. Ergonomics-wise the pistol is very challenging to shoot well. The "broom-handle" pistol grip is very small and round, while the pistol is also quite top-heavy compared to other pistol designs, which makes holding and aiming it properly quite difficult. Surprisingly ergonomics are not all bad - for right-handed shooter Neues Sicherung type safety is easy and natural to use with a thumb. During shooting the pistol shows noticeable muzzle climb, which somewhat slows down pace of shooting, but recoil is rather mild. Sight picture is manageable - wide notch in rear sight and sharp front sight post. Trigger is rather typical to military service pistols - not light or heavy and as a bonus trigger travel is relatively short. If shooting in indoor shooting range or cot, wearing a hat is recommended - the pistol extracts cartridge cases straight up and if there is a ceiling from which they can bounce back, some of them will fall on shooter's head. Disassembly and re-assembly of this pistol are not for those that are faint in heart - this may be the most complicated pistol to disassemble and re-assemble to ever accepted in military use.

 

7,62 mm Revolver M/1895 Nagant:

(Revolver sistemy nagana obr. 1895 g.)

PICTURE: Nagant revolver M/1895. The loading port is open and a cartridge half-way in. (Photo credit Gun Pictures.net website). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (75 KB).

Calibre:

7,62 mm x 38 R Nagant

Length:

244 mm

Barrel length:

144 mm

Weight:

770 g

Magazine:

7

Official abbreviations:

"7,62 rev/Nagant"

Country of origin:

Russia/Soviet Union

Prototype:

1892

Production:

Belgium 1895 - 1898, Russia/Soviet Union 1899 - 1945.

Finnish use: Officially issued only to some home-front units during World War 2, unofficially used in large numbers by Finnish soldiers that had captured them.

Russian Armed Forces accepted this revolver designed by Belgian Leon Nagant to their sidearm in 1895. In their use Nagant revolver replaced earlier Smith & Wesson and Galand revolvers. As far as the structure goes - Nagant revolver loaned the idea for gas-seal from earlier design of his rival Henry Pieper. Pieper had acquired patented his own gas-sealed revolver 1886, but had made the mistake of letting the patent to expire. So Nagant could freely use its quite special gas-seal system formed by cartridge case, barrel and cylinder which moved forward to close the gas-seal when revolver was cocked. The ammunition used for this is also quite unusual: Bullet was seated totally inside cartridge case. First 20,000 revolvers were made in Belgium until Tula arsenal got its production running. By start of World War 1 about 420,000 of these revolvers had been made. During World War 1 Nagant revolver was main sidearm in use of Russian Army and over 470,000 Nagant revolvers were manufactured in years 1914 - 1917. Early on Nagant revolver was made in two versions, from these "officer's model" was double-action while single-action-only "enlisted-men's version" was made for other ranks. Nagant revolver (of officer's model, as the Bolsheviks soon stopped production of the single-action-only version) manufacturing continued also after 1917 revolution, even if the revolution and Russian Civil War created demand they also decreased production. Some sources suggest that the last "enlisted-men's version" of Nagant M/1895 were manufactured in year 1922. Even when Soviet military adopted TT-33 pistol in early 1930's the production of Nagant also continued (with exception of year 1934) until 1945. Reasons for keeping Nagant in production seem to have been quite simple - the machinery for production existed, so why not use it. Also Nagant, unlike TT-33 pistol, could not be fired through narrow vision slots of armoured vehicles - feature which the Soviets considered useful before World War 2. Over 1,070,000 Nagant revolvers were manufactured in Soviet Union between 1932 - 1945. During World War 2 they were issued to many units and tank crews seem to have been typically issued with them due to they being capable of being fired through vision slots typical in Soviet tanks of that era.

Also some rare special versions of Nagant M/1895 exist. Smaller version (often called "NKVD version" or "commander's version") of Nagant M/1895 was manufactured in much smaller numbers than the full-size revolver. It had shorter (typically 85-mm long) barrel and smaller grip. This version was seems to have manufactured for non-military authorities (police, customs etc) use. It was first manufactured in small numbers already around 1911 - 1914, but larger production (estimated about 25,000) were made in Tula around 1925 - 1930. While the names mentioned above are not totally accurate, they are not totally false either, since this version seems to have been used also by NVKD and OGPU. Another rare earlier special version was equipped with attachment slot, which allowed using small axe of Soviet Engineer Corps to be used as a shoulder stock. Third (also extremely rare) special version was silencer-equipped version (usual revolvers cannot really be silenced, but thanks to Nagant's gas-seal system it was an exception). However maybe the most rarest of all special versions of Nagant M/1895 was nickel-plated presentation version that the Soviets used for awarding their officers with Order of the Red Banner until year 1930. After World War 1 Nagant M/1895 revolvers were also manufactured in Poland for a short period of time.

PICTURE: Nagant revolver M/1895 with its side plate removed. Even if this revolver is considered quite complicated the actual mechanism is surprisingly simple. CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (98 KB).

The Finns captured Nagant revolvers already during Civil War of 1918, but almost all ended up as war souvenirs of those who had been lucky enough to capture one. Finnish Army didn't have much of interest towards these revolvers, as it wanted pistols as side arms. During World War 2 these revolvers were captured by the thousands, but only few hundred were handed over to Army weapons administration. Just like in 1918, soldiers who had captured kept them and took them home as war souvenirs after the war. Only some of the home-front units got officially issued with Nagant revolvers during Continuation War, while unofficially large amount of Finnish front-line soldiers were carrying Nagant revolvers as spare weaponry after capturing one. Finnish soldiers usually called the revolver only as "Nagan", "Nagani" or "Nagantti" and the weapon was generally quite well-liked. The somewhat unusual cartridge used in these revolvers also achieved somewhat larger-than-life reputation in some war-stories, even if they were somewhat mediocre or even bit weak in their true ballistics.

Finnish military didn't have much interest towards Nagant after the World War 2 either. Year 1951 Finnish Defence Forces had some 1,400 Nagant revolvers, over 1,100 of these were officer's (double-action) model. Year 1960 Finnish military sold remaining Nagant revolvers to Interarmco, which shipped them abroad. This marked the ending for the use of Nagant M/1895 in Finnish Armed Forces. Large number brought back by Finnish soldiers were likely to see much use after the war either - there was no ammunition commercially available, so once their new owners run out of captured ammunition, they were unlikely to succeed finding more.

Nowadays Nagant M/1895 revolvers are available to collectors in very decent prices, but Nagant ammunition is not cheap. Only three sources of 7.62 mm x 38R Nagant ammunition seem to exist in these days - Fiocchi, Prvi Partizan and unspecified Russian source. While Fiocchi and Prvi Partizan manufactured ammunition are commonly available they are quite expensive. Many owners of Nagant M/1895 are shooting .32 calibre revolver ammunition loaded with lead bullets in these revolvers as a cheaper alternative. This somewhat works, but not without some setbacks and risks. Shooting .32 calibre rounds (like .32 S & W Long) is potentially risky and can get the gun barrel very dirty very fast. The pressure level produced by these rounds is higher than that produced by mild target loads of 7.62 x 38R Nagant round manufactured by Fiocchi or Prvi. It is doubtful if anybody had calculated how powerful cartridge Nagant M/1895 can handle - so there might be enough safety margin for this - or not. In addition cartridge case of Nagant cartridge is fatter than what are used in .32 calibre revolver rounds - so if unmodified .32 cal revolver rounds are fired in normal Nagant M/1895 cylinder they may bulge and get stuck. I have not seen any reports of accidents with .32 Smith & Wesson Long ammunition in unmodified m/1895 cylinder, but if you try this, you can do this only with your own responsibility. Personally I have decided to stick with original 7.62 mm x 38R ammunition. Also replacement cylinders made for .32 ACP (7.65 mm x 17 Browning) have been manufactured for these revolvers. Installing such replacement cylinder may require fitting. Earlier some cylinders have also been modified for 7.62 mm x 25 Tokarev cartridge - but these are considered extremely dangerous. The pressure level created by 7.62 mm x 25 Tokarev cartridge is way beyond, what Nagant M/1895 was intended to handle and modifying cylinder to this ammunition would weaken it considerably - in short, a recipe for a disaster to happen.

PICTURE: Simple non-permanent trigger job for Nagant M/1895 revolver. "Sport Shooting" by A.A. Jurjev explains this method - a cylinder shape wedge (piece of bullet) of suitable length and diameter of 6 - 8 millimeters is inserted to location marked in this photo. This cylinder-shape wedge in between front grip and main spring reduces both trigger pressure and trigger travel. Finding the correct wedge diameter is exercise of trial and error. Too wide or too thin wedge can cause problems or even jam the trigger mechanism. With this individual revolver 7.5-mm wedge proved too thick (caused hair trigger and once pulled jammed the trigger its rear position), but 6.5-mm wedge works well. So try this only with your own responsibility. CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (143 KB)

Writer's personal shooting experiences with Nagant M/1895 revolver: This revolver seems to have plenty of capacity for good shooting accuracy, but both very small grip and heavy trigger rather typical in these revolvers makes shooting it accurately difficult even for the best of shooters. When fired double-action the trigger is even heavier than in single-action mode. Originally trigger pull in my M/1895 was simply horrible - very long and heavy. Thanks to instructions found from "Sport Shooting" by A.A. Jurjev, the trigger pull is now considerably lighter and shorter - reasonably good for occasional target shooting purposes. Attached photo shows the non-permanent simple modification, which you may try with your own responsibility. Reloading the revolver after firing the seven rounds is also very slow compared to other common World War 2 era sidearms, since it demands removing cartridge cases via loading port and replacing them with new cartridges one by one. While it is a interesting technical design, I would not list Nagant m/1895 among best World War 2 or even World War 1 era sidearms. Sights are not too bad, but not too good either. Mechanical accuracy seems to be quite good - when the small grip does not succeed bothering me too much the shooting results seem to be rather good. Disassembly and reassembly of the revolver for routine maintenance is easy, since it requires basically just removing of cylinder and cleaning of it and bore.

 

7,62 mm Pistol Tokarev T-33:

(Samozarjadnyi Pistolet Tula-Tokareva)

(Pistolet Tokareva, opytnyj obrazets 1930 g.)

PICTURE: Tokarev TT-33 pistol. CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (119 KB).

Calibre:

7,62 mm x 25 Tokarev

Length:

195 mm

Barrel length:

115 mm

Weight:

900 g

Magazine:

8, removable

Official abbreviations:

"7,63 pist/ven." and "763 PIST SOV"

Country of origin:

Soviet Union

Prototype:

1930 (early TT-30 version)

Production:

TT-30 1933 - 1935, TT-33 1935 - 1953, about 1 million.

Finnish use: Officially only some issued to non-frontline units during Continuation War. Unofficially used in large numbers by Finnish soldiers who had captured pistols of this type.

The Soviets started planning military pistol using 7,62 mm x 25 (basically a bit more hot loaded copy of 7,63 mm x 25 Mauser) cartridge already in year 1928. TT-30 prototype of Fedor Vasilevich Tokarev using Browning-system proved best in the tests the Soviets arranged for selecting new service pistol for Soviet Red Army in July of 1930. Other pistols taking part in those tests included: Walther, Parabellum, Browning, Prilutsky and Korovin. However, even if the TT-30 prototype was the best in the tests, it needed improvements before being introduced to military use. The improved TT-30 prototype was successfully tested in January of 1931 and approved to Soviet military. After this acceptance 1,000 TT-30 pistols were ordered for testing in various Red Army units in February of 1931. The mass-production in Tula arsenal gained momentum in 1931 - 1933 and got into full swing in 1934. Some changes (mainly ones making manufacturing easier) were made to the pistol already during this process in year 1933. These changes led into introducing a new version of the pistol called TT-33, which replaced TT-30 in production by year 1935. However soon the Soviets found TT-30 pistol to have its share of problems: Their main spring had short service life and the user could quite easily accidentally eject its magazine. Before World War it was also criticised for being unsuitable to be fired through vision slits, which the the Soviets were still building to their tanks. Because of these reasons the Soviets started looking new service pistol in year 1938. Prototypes made by Korovin, Rakov, Tokarev and Voevodin took part to tests done in July of 1939. From these prototypes the Voevodin's design proved most successful. It had short-recoil action with 18-round magazine and without the war its improved version might replaced TT-30. But then came the the war and changed plans - the Soviets didn't want to disrupt production by introducing new pistol so they decided to keep TT-30 pistol and Nagant revolver in manufacturing and forget the new pistol. During World War 2 TT-33 pistol was main pistol type used by Soviet military, during war years its yearly production was over 100,000 pistols/year, but during the war quality also deteriorated and bakelite grip plates were often replaced with ones made from wood. T-33 pistols manufactured after the war were again equipped with bakelite grips. The pistol remained in production in Soviet Union until 1953, when Makarov (PM) pistol entered production. After World War 2 more or less direct copies of Soviet TT-33 were manufactured in my many countries such as Poland (Pistolet TT and .22 LR calibre Sportowy-version), Hungary (48M and 9-mm Tokagypt 58) and Yugoslavia (M57, M70 and M70A), China (Type 54, Type 54-1 and Type 213) and North Korea. In this day T-33 and its copies are still used by authorities in some countries - largest remaining user being China. During WW2 captured TT-33 saw also some use with German military, which called the pistol "Pistole 615(r)".

From technical point of view TT-30 and TT-33 were obviously based to Browning military pistols and their basic mechanism was "tilting barrel" first introduced by John Browning. But the pistol also has some rather interesting characteristics. It doesn't have safety (unless one counts the "half-way cocked" notch in its hammer as such) and parts handling firing the pistol have been all build as separate group of their own, so they can be removed from the pistol as one package when the pistol is dismantled. The magazines are also rather unusual - they don't have lips (from which the round is fed to cartridge chamber), but instead the part acting as lips are integral part of the pistols grip section. This rather interesting arrangement pretty much removes the possibility of jams caused by bent magazine lips and at the same time makes manufacturing magazines easier and cheaper. The easiest way (without dismantling the pistol) of separating TT-30 from TT-33 is checking back of the grip - TT-30 has a separate part which covers almost whole back of the grip in there and allows removing return spring, while TT-33 doesn't. TT-30 and TT-33 also have rather obvious differences in their barrels when dismantled and compared side by side - locking grooves outside barrel vital for "tilting barrel"-concept are only on top of the barrel in TT-30, while in TT-33 they go all the way around the barrel.

PICTURE: Tokarev TT-33 pistol with its slide locked rear. Under the pistol is its holster and visible are also spare magazine, cleaning rod and some ammunition. CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (115 KB).

After Finnish soldiers captured their first TT-33 pistols they immediately nicknamed TT-33 as "tähti-pistooli" (="star-pistol") because of star emblem clearly marked to grip panels. Just like with Nagant revolvers they were captured in thousands, but Finnish soldiers who had captured them turned over only few hundred to proper channels. The reason for this was quite simple: The soldiers preferred keeping captured pistols as part of their personal weaponry during war and took them home as war-souvenirs after the war. In a way the attitude of soldiers made sense - for soldier armed with bolt-action rifle a automatic pistol of any kind was a useful backup. Even if they were not officially issued to frontline troops some Tokarev pistols were issued to Finnish troops serving in home front during Continuation War. Finnish ammunition supply didn't separate 7.62 mm x 25 Tokarev ammunition from 7.63 mm x 25 Mauser, so it is more than likely that Mauser-ammunition was used TT-33 pistols used by Finnish units stationed in home front. Frontline soldiers with their thousands of captured unofficial pistols presumably relied more to captured ammunition.

Finnish military had very little interest towards these pistols (that used non-issue ammunition) after the war either. Remaining 669 TT-33 pistols were sold Interarmco, that shipped them abroad around 1959 - 1960. From collectors point of view for example TT-30 and .22 LR calibre Polish "Sportowy"-version are very rare and therefore quite expensive nowadays. TT-33 was simple and practical military pistol with some quite innovative ideas, but the design also its flaws - the pistol has considerable safety issues if carried with round chambered. Another issue was accidentally dropping the magazine - a common complaint in Soviet sources.

PICTURE: Tokarev TT-33 pistol disassembled for basic maintenance. CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (142 KB).

Writer's personal shooting experiences with TT-33 pistol: While TT-33 is not exactly a target pistol, it seems to be the very epitome of reliable military sidearm. The grip is short, but otherwise the pistol is a natural pointer in which due to design and prioritisation allow to function reliably even if the fit and finish may not be necessarily too impressive. The ergonomics are rather poor and with often a heavy trigger and strong recoil this makes accurate shooting somewhat challenging. As to be expected from Soviet military pistols trigger pressure and accuracy vary considerably from one individual pistol to another. Typically fit and finish of pre-WW2 pistols seem to have been better than in wartime production. Due to grip size and design hammer-bite is common problem while shooting with TT-33. Both disassembly and reassembly for basic maintenance are reasonably easy, but not among the easiest. If the person is familiar with Colt 1911 type pistols, the disassembly and reassembly of this pistol is quite similar. The pistol breaks into 7 (8 if magazine is included) parts in basic maintenance disassembly. Sight picture is otherwise pretty good, but tight in the sense that front sight post fills rear sight notch almost completely. While the Soviets considered possibility of accidentally dropping the magazine a problem, I have not found this to be a problem. The magazine does drop freely off the pistol if the magazine release is pressed, but that is typical to most pistols nowadays. Reloading the pistol is both easy and fast. Magazines are easy to load into their full capacity. Since the pistol does not have real safety of any kind carrying it with cartridge in chamber is neither safe or recommendable - this may have been the most serious handicap of the design as a military sidearm.


SUGGESTED LINKS FOR MORE INFO:

The Homepage of Mauser 1896 "Broom Handle" Pistol

Njanear's Russian M1895 Collection


SOURCES:

Markku Palokangas: Sotilaskäsiaseet Suomessa 1918 - 1988 osat 1 - 3 (= Military Small Arms in Finland 1918 - 1988 parts 1 - 3)

Timo Hyytinen: Arma Fennica 2, sotilasaseet (Arma Fennica 2, military weapons)

D.N. Bolotin: Soviet Small-Arms and Ammunition.

Jan Kronlund: Suomen Puolustuslaitos 1918 - 1939 (= Finnish Defence Department 1918 - 1939).

Ian Hogg and John Wells: Pistols of the World.

Article: Ukko-Mauser-pistooli by Heikki Pohjolainen in Ase magazine vol. 4/1984.

Article: Sarja-automaatti Ukko Mauser by Heikki Pohjolainen in Ase magazine vol. 5/86.

Article: Mauser C 96 Bolo by Matti Ingman in Ase-lehti magazine vol. 3/93.

Article: Mauser C 96 pistoolin espanjalaiset kopiot by Matti Ingman in Ase-lehti magazine vol. 5/94.

Article: Harvinainen Mauser C 96 by Matti Ingman in Ase-lehti magazine vol. 1/95.

Article: Ukkoikäinen legenda Mauser C 96 by Mika Vuolle in Kaliberi magazine vol. 6/1995.

Article: Välimallin Mauser C96 by Mika Vuolle in Kaliberi magazine vol. 3/1998.

Article: Tähti-pistooli, I osa by Heikki Pohjolainen in Ase magazine vol 5/1985.

Article: Tokarevin toverit by Pekka Pohjolainen in Ase-lehti magazine vol. 1/86.

Article: Tokarev T-33 by Vesa Toivonen in Ase-lehti magazine vol. 2/93.

Article: N-liiton automaattipistoolit ennen Tokarev:in aikaa by Matti Ingman in Ase-lehti magazine vol. 3/96.

Article: Tokarevin pistooli by Mika Vuolle in Kaliberi magazine vol. 1/1999.

Article: Nagant revolveri Venäjän armeijassa by Heikki Pohjonen in Ase magazine vol. 5/1984.

Article: Nagantin sukujuuret by Matti Ingman in Ase-lehti magazine vol. 5/91.

Article: Kolmen linjan revolveri, Nagant M 1895 by Mika Vuolle in Kaliberi magazine vol. 2/1997.

Article: Miten Nagant-revolveri tuli Venäjälle by Tatjana N. Iljina, translated by Matti Virtanen in Ase-lehti magazine vol. 6/98.

Article: Vuosisatamme seitsenpanoksinen symboli by Sergej Monetsikov, translated by Viktor Mitsenkov and Tero Hasu in Ase-lehti magazine vol. 1/99.

Article: Nagant-revolverin eräitä malleja by Matti Ingman in Ase-lehti magazine vol. 2/2004.

Special thanks to Sotamuseo (Finnish Military Museum), Helsinki

Special thanks to bas and his Gun Pictures.net website.


Last updated 23rd of August 2011
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