ARMOURED CARS PART 4

 

 

Finnish Heavy Armoured Cars in World War 2

 

 

 

Landsverk 182

PICTURE: Drawing showing Landsverk 182 armoured car of Finnish Army during Winter War. Tires are not totally correct, but otherwise this drawing should be pretty accurate. CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (139 KB).

Weight:

5.6 tons

Length:

about 5.6 - 5.7 meters

Width:

about 2.0 meters

Height:

about 2.4 meters

Max. Speed:

65 km/h (on road)

56 km/h on reverse

Engine:

75 hp gasoline engine

Armour:

6 - 8 mm

Ground Pressure:

? kg/square cm

Gradient:

24 degrees

Trench:

? m

Fording:

0.6 m

Range:

260 - 300 km (on road) / 180 - 200 km (on terrain)

Weapons:

13.2-mm L-35/36 machinegun (150 rounds) (1936 - Nov 1940) (*)

20-mm antitank-rifle L-39 (200 rounds) (1941 - 1945) (*)

2 x L-33/36 machinegun (? rounds)

(7.62-mm Maxim as anti-aircraft machinegun) (**)

Crew:

5 men

Country of Origin:

Sweden

Production:

1936

(*) Original main weapon was 13.2-mm heavy machinegun L-35/36 with ten drum magazines of 15 rounds, it was replaced with 20-mm antitank-rifle L-39 in November - December 1939. When equipped with this 20-mm antitank rifle the vehicle carried 20 magazines of 10 rounds for it.

(**) On top of the turret this vehicle had an anti-aircraft mount, which could be used either with the vehicle's 7.62-mm co-axial machinegun L-35/36 removed from its usual place or with separate 7.62-mm water-cooled Maxim machinegun.

Finnish use: One Landsverk 182 armoured car bought year 1936 and issued to cavalry. Only armoured car of Finnish Army to see combat use during Winter War. Main weaponry changed in November - December 1940. Finnish Army used this vehicle also in Continuation War.

Ab Landsverk was a Swedish company owned by German company GHH (Gutehoffnungshütte Aktienverein für Bergbau und Hüttenbereich Oberhausen). The company had previously manufactured products like railway cars and agricultural machinery and added armoured cars to its products in year 1929. The first armoured car design manufactured by Ab Landsverk was L-170, three of which were bought by Swedish Army, who named them pansarbil fm/29. Later Swedish Army ordered 30 armoured cars pansarbil m/31 and during World War 2 took over 20 armoured cars, which Ireland and Netherlands had ordered. The most important export customer was Netherlands, which bought 26 armoured cars and second most important Ireland with eight armoured cars. Smaller export customers included Denmark (six armoured cars), Lithuania (also six), Finland (one) and Estonia (one). During World War 2 also German military became user of Landsverk's armoured cars, using captured L-180 and L-181 armoured cars, which had been delivered to Netherlands before the war.

Finland bought one 182 armoured car from Ab Landsverk in year 1936. Its price was 75,000 Swedish Crowns. Individual registry number of this vehicle was R-0. This was the only L-182 armoured car ever manufactured by Ab Landsverk. The chassis used in it was Daimler-Benz and the whole hull seems to have been similar to one used in L-181 armoured cars bought by Netherlands and Lithuania. But both the turret and armament were rather unique - from these two the turret was a Landsverk design, while armament was designed by Aimo Lahti in VKT (Valtion Kivääritehdas = State Rifle Factory) especially for this vehicle. Main weapon was 13.2-mm L-35/36 machinegun variant designed for use in armoured vehicles. The other two machineguns were both also Lahti's designs - 7.62-mm machineguns L-33/36 placed as coaxial and front hull machineguns. Top of the vehicle's turret had special anti-aircraft mount, which could be used with the machinegun removed from coaxial position or with water-cooled 7.62-mm Maxim machinegun. While the vehicle was otherwise quite modern by standard of 1930's, the basic design of this armoured car has to be considered somewhat old-fashioned with both forward and rear drivers. Other crewmembers of the five-man crew included commander/gunner (with 13.2-mm machinegun), observer (with coaxial turret machinegun) and gunner (who used hull machinegun. The tires used in the vehicle were filled with sponge rubber, making them less vulnerable to damage and also chains could be used with these tires when needed. The vehicle was relatively fast on road, lightly armoured and quite well armed by standards of 1930's.

The official ceremony for taking this armoured car to use of Finnish Army was held in Lappeenranta 27th of July 1936 and in that ceremony it was issued to new military unit created for it. This new unit was Panssariosasto (Armoured Unit) of Ratsuväkiprikaati (Cavalry Brigade), whose only other vehicles were one truck and one motorcycle. This particular unit was expanded as a company-size Erillinen Panssarieskadroona (Separate Armoured Squadron) in January of 1938. By year 1939 this new expanded had received two Vickers 6-ton tanks and eight FT-17 tanks in addition to its existing armoured car. Later that year Separate Armoured Squadron returned FT-17 tanks and received 5 additional Vickers 6-ton tanks. It's known that the whole idea for acquiring armoured cars for Cavalry Brigade had started from suggestion made by its commander in year 1934. Hence there is good reason to speculate, that this company-size unit (Separate Armoured Squadron) was probably created as a preparation for possible future battalion-size cavalry armoured car unit, creating of which was considered at the time. According plans the battalion-size unit would have been equipped with 27 Landsverk 8-ton armoured cars (likely L-180 or similar type), whose armament would have been 37-mm Bofors tank gun (version of 37 PstK/36) and two 7.62-mm machineguns. Motorising of former cavalry units and turning them into tank or armoured car units was a common trend in 1930's, so creating of this kind of unit would have not been unusual. While buying of these armoured cars was consider in year 1938, ultimately they were never bought and when Winter War started in November of 1939 the lone Landsverk 182 was still the only armoured car in use of Finnish Army. And since Vickers 6-ton tanks bought in 1938 - 1939 were still unarmed, it was one of the very few Finnish modern armoured vehicles in operational condition at that time.

This being the situation Landsverk 182 was sent to Karelian Isthmus 6th of October 1939. Two days later new small unit called Moottoroitu Osasto (Motorised Unit) of Ratsuväki Prikaati (Cavalry Brigade) was created around it. It was only armoured vehicle of this small unit, other vehicles of which were two trucks and a motorcycle. Indeed rest of the unit served mainly as supply and repair support for the armoured car. Still this armoured car saw very little combat use during Winter War. When the war begun it was in village of Uusikirkko in Karelian Isthmus and 3rd of December 1939 it took part in battle near Perkjärvi village, evacuating four wounded. Finnish troops started their retreat towards Mannerheim line in this area two days later, during the retreat panic appeared among supplies units in this area and there is reason to believe that this armoured car may have benefited to it. 26th of December the unit was transferred to Taipale frontline sector, where it didn't see any combat use before ending of the war. Motorised Unit of Cavalry Brigade was suspended 5th of January 1940 after noting that the lone armoured car had little need for such a large support unit. After this Landsverk 182 continued operating independently without any support unit of its own. However it was now used as a reserve of Cavalry Brigade and didn't see further combat use in rest of the war.

After Winter War the main armament of Landsverk 182 proved problematic. Not only were the wartime experiences of 13.2-mm machineguns less than spectacular, but since ammunition production of Finnish 13.2-mm ammunition had never passed test-production stage before being stopped, there would be no ammunition supply available in the future. So around November - December 1940 original 13.2-mm machinegun L-35/36 was replaced in VKT (State Rifle Factory) in Jyväskylä with 20-mm antitank-rifle L-39 and the vehicle served in Armoured Car Platoon of Armoured Unit (Panssariosasto) of 1st Division with this new main armament during the first year of Continuation War. Apparently the vehicle was removed from use in end of year 1941 and scrapped in 1945.

 

BAF A (BA-3)

PICTURE: BAF A (BA-3) armoured car R-21 of 7th Armoured Car Platoon. Photo taken in Vitele July of 1941. (SA-kuva photo archive, photo number 28041). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (177 KB).

Weight:

 

6.0 tons

Length:

 

4.77 meters

Width:

 

2.11 meters

Height:

 

2.35 meters

Max. Speed:

 

63 km/h (on road)

 

 

? km/h on reverse

Engine:

 

40 hp GAZ-AA 4-cylinder gasoline engine

Armour:

 

? - 8 mm

- Hull front

 

8 mm

- Turret front

 

8 mm

Ground Clearance:

 

25 cm

Ground Pressure:

 

3.2 kg/square cm

Gradient:

 

25 degrees

Trench:

 

? m

Fording:

 

1.0 m

Range:

 

260 km (on road) / 140 km (on terrain)

Weapons:

 

45-mm tank gun M/32 (40 rounds)

 

 

2 x 7.62-mm DT machinegun (3.276 rounds)

Crew:

 

4 men

Country of Origin:

 

Soviet Union

Production:

 

1934 – 1935

Finnish use: Likely only one BA-3 used by Finnish Army during World War 2. It was used by 7th Armoured Car Platoon in year 1941.

BA-3 was the first mass-produced Soviet heavy armoured car. It was obviously designed for combat and heavily armed for this purpose. It had the same turret was used in T-26 model 1933 light tanks and armament similar to Soviet T-26 and BT-series tanks of that era and wasn’t even too much behind them armour-wise either. Design team of Izhorskiy plant this armoured car and there it was also manufactured. Total production that took place 1934 - 1935 was some 160 vehicles. While the welded turret was from T-26 m 1933 the welted and riveted hull was heavily based to design used with preceding BA-I armoured car, which Izhorskiy plant had been manufacturing 1933 – 1934. This hull retained even the rear access door, which was eliminated from later Soviet heavy armoured car designs. Chassis that it was built on was GAZ-AA (Ford-AA) truck chassis and it used also GAZ-AA (Ford-AA) engine. The vehicle had four-man crew - driver and hull machinegunner in the front hull area of fighting compartment, while tank commander/gunner and loader were located in turret of the vehicle with its main weaponry. This main weaponry in turret of the vehicle contained 45-mm M-1932 tank gun, which was among the very best tank guns when this armoured car was manufactured and coaxial DT-machinegun. In addition to this front hull contained another DT-light machinegun, which was operated by hull machinegunner. These armoured cars lacked radios, which later on proved serious handicap, but that was not be prove as their only problem. BA-3 certainly looks better design on paper than many of the contemporary designs. The crew was large enough to operate all weapons at once. Due to the two-man turret the vehicle's commander wasn't overburdened with responsibility of gunner only to beyond reasonable degree. And the maximum road-speed (for the large part possible due to new pneumatic tires) wasn't too poor either. Biggest problem was cross-county mobility, which proved exceedingly poor and operational range was rather good. Much of the guilt due to poor performance falls here to GAZ-AA engine, which produced only 40 horsepower and which the Soviets retained even in their later BA-6 and BA-10 armoured cars. Also, as these later designs were to prove, BA-3 was unnecessarily heavy. Before World War 2 BA-3 armoured cars saw combat in use of Soviet Red Army in Khalkhin Gol and obviously saw extensive use during World War 2. It is also possible that Soviet Union sold 60 of these armoured cars to Turkey before World War 2.

Finnish Army called BA-3 armoured car as BAF A armoured car - this was probably result of pre-war Finnish Army not being aware of proper names that Soviet Red Army was using of its armoured cars. Name BAF that Finnish Army used of heavy Soviet armoured cars seems to have originated from Russian terms Bronie Avtomobil Ford translating as Ford armoured car. Finnish Army used at least one captured BAF A armoured car. Unfortunately Finnish inventory lists of armoured cars made before June 1944 don't separate types of BAF armoured cars (BA-3, BA-3 and BA-10/10M) from each other - instead giving only total number of BAF armoured cars. The more detailed inventory reports originating from year 1944 contain just one of these armoured cars. Captured somewhere 1940 - 1941 this individual armoured car was used by 7. Panssariautojoukkue (7th Armoured Car Platoon) in year 1941 and its individual armour registry number (kind of a like a license plate) was R-21. Another registry number (somewhat similar to license plate, these numbers were used to identify individual armoured vehicles) reserved for BAF A armoured cars was Ps.25. The lone BAF A remained in inventory of Finnish Army until it was declared obsolete, removed from inventory around 1954 - 1955 and scrapped.

 

 

BAF B (BA-6)

PICTURE: BA-6 heavy armoured car. This particular individual armoured car was not used by Finnish military, but it is exactly the same model that saw Finnish use. Notice shape of turret with rear overhang. (Photo taken in Central Museum of Russian Armed Forces, Moscow Russia). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (117 KB).

Weight:

 

5.1 tons

Length:

 

4.90 meters

Width:

 

2.07 meters

Height:

 

2.36 meters

Max. Speed:

 

43 km/h (on road)

 

 

? km/h on reverse

Engine:

 

40 hp GAZ-AA 4-cylinder gasoline engine

Armour:

3 - 9 mm

- Hull front and sides

 

9 mm

- Hull rear

 

4 - 8 mm

- Hull roof

 

6 mm

- Hull floor

 

3 mm

- Turret front and sides

 

8 mm

Ground Clearance:

 

24 cm

Ground Pressure:

 

3.5 kg/square cm

Gradient:

 

20 degrees

Trench:

 

0.6 m

Fording:

 

0.8 m

Range:

 

200 km (on road) / 130 km (on terrain)

Weapons:

 

45-mm tank gun M/32 (60 rounds)

 

 

2 x DT machinegun (3.276 rounds)

Crew:

 

4 men

Country of Origin:

 

Soviet Union

Production:

 

1935 – 1939

Finnish use: Finnish Army used about 10 of captured BA-6 armoured cars during Continuation War (1941 - 1944).

BA-6 was improved heavy armour car design based to earlier BA-3. As its predecessor it was designed and assembled by Izhorskiy plant, which manufactured 386 of these armoured cars in 1935 - 1939. The Soviets had considered BA-3 too heavy and Izhorskiy design team had succeeded making BA-6 almost a ton lighter. Its chassis was a modified GAZ-AAA (Ford-AAA) truck chassis with stronger rear suspension and modified transmission. Armament and crew had not changed, but more ammunition had been reserved for the main gun. Scuttle added under the engine’s radiator improved air flow on engine, considerably reducing the danger of engine overheating, which was a pretty common problem in armoured cars. Checking the numbers above, quite surprisingly BA-6 in some ways was inferior to BA-3 - it was both slower on road and had even smaller operational range. But these reductions of capability can be easily explained - previous pneumatic tires had provided better road speed and range, but they were also much more vulnerable to small arms fire and shrapnel than the new tires filled with sponge rubber, that were used with BA-6. BA-3 and BA-6 resemble each other a lot - so, in addition of the scuttle maybe the best distinguishing feature between them is the rear access door, which all but very early production BA-6 are lacking. Before extensive use with Soviet Red Army in World War these armoured cars saw use already in Khalkhin Gol against the Japanese and in Spanish Civil, for which the Soviets supplied Republican forces with 80 of these armoured cars.

Finnish Army knew BA-6 armoured car as BAF B armoured car and captured dozens of these armoured cars in Winter War and first year of Continuation War. As mentioned specific inventory information before June is missing, but it seems that likely Finnish Army took about 10 of these armoured cars to its own use. They were issued to Finnish armoured car units for Continuation War and saw combat use during it. After World War 2 they remained reserved for possible wartime use, until they were slowly removed from inventory in late 1950's. The last BAF B armoured cars were removed from inventory of Finnish Army in year 1957 and scrapped. Finnish Army used armoured registry numbers starting with Ps.26 with BAF B armoured cars.

 

BAF C (BA-10 and BA-10M)

PICTURE: Only remaining sample of BAF C (BA-10M) armoured cars used by Finnish Army in Continuation War. Hull machinegun shield is missing, but the extra fuel tank holders are still on rear fenders. (Photo taken in Panssarimuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (81 KB).

Weight:

 

5.14 tons (BA-10) / 5.36 tons (BA-10M) (*)

Length:

 

4.66 meters (BA-10) / 4.65 meters (BA-10M)

Width:

 

2.07 meters

Height:

 

2.21 meters (BA-10) / 2.19 meters (BA-10M)

Max. Speed:

 

52 - 55 km/h (*) / ?? km/h (**) (on road)

 

 

? km/h on reverse

Engine:

 

52 hp GAZ-M1 4-cylinder gasoline engine (original)

 

 

95 hp Ford V8 gasoline engine (Finnish replacement)

Armour:

 

4 - 15 mm

- Hull front and sides

 

10 - 15 mm (glacis 10 - 15 mm, otherwise 10 mm)

- Hull rear

 

6 - 10 mm

- Hull roof

 

6 mm

- Hull floor

 

4 mm

- Turret front and sides

 

10 mm

Ground Clearance:

 

23 cm

Ground Pressure:

 

2.8 kg/square cm

Gradient:

 

24 degrees

Trench:

 

0.4 m

Fording:

 

0.6 m

Range:

 

260 - 300 km (on road) / 180 - 210 km (on terrain) (*)

Weapons:

 

45-mm tank gun M/34 or M/38 (43 rounds) (***)

 

 

2 x DT machinegun (2.079 rounds)

Crew:

 

4 men

Country of Origin:

 

Soviet Union

Production:

 

1938 - 1941

(*) With original 52 hp GAZ-M1 engine.

(**) With Finnish installed 95 hp Ford V8 replacement engine.

(***) 45-mm tank gun M/34 was used in early production vehicles. Late production vehicles had 45-mm tank gun M/38.

Finnish use: The most common captured heavy armoured car in Finnish use. About 13 or so vehicles were in Finnish use during Continuation War.

BA-10 and BA-10M were the last Soviet World War 2 era heavy armoured cars. As to be expected they were based to earlier BA-3 and BA-6 designs. Main improvements from BA-6 to BA-10 were introduction of new conical turret and slightly more powerful GAZ-M1 engine. However it might be worth noting that both of these improvements had been introduced already year 1936 with BA-6M prototype, for which BA-10 seems to have been heavily based. As previous models also BA-10 armoured car was designed by design team of Izhorskiy plant, where it was also manufactured. BA-10 was introduced to production in year 1938, but its modernised version BA-10M replaced it in production already the following year (1939). BA-10M was the last mass-produced model of Soviet BA heavy armoured car series. The improvements from BA-10 to BA-10M were quite small - the most important of these were adding some armour to some weak spots and replacing of 71-TK-1 radio transmitter-receiver with new 71-TK-3. While externally extremely similar usually these two models can be separated from each other best with reserve fuel tanks added on top of rear bumpers, which were used only in BA-10M. These two armoured car models were manufactured in much larger numbers than any previous models - some 1,400 BA-10 and BA-10M were manufactured in years 1938 - 1941. Chassis used in BA-10 and BA-10 was basically a shortened GAZ-AAA chassis. Their armoured hull and turret were welded construction. Even if it had stronger chassis and more powerful engine the all terrain capability of BA-10 and BA-10M wasn't really better than earlier BA-series designs. Thanks to bit more powerful engine and larger fuel tanks operational range increased some. The additional 240 kilos or so that newer radio, reserve fuel tanks and some additional armour added to weight of BA-10M didn't make any real difference to mobility or all terrain capabilities of the vehicle. Due to smaller conical turret providing less storage space the number of shells reserved for 45-mm main gun was reduced from the 60 shells of BA-6 to 43 shells. The GK tires filled with sponge rubber introduced with BA-6 were used also with BA-10 and BA-10M. As its predecessors also BA-10 saw extensive use with Soviet Red Army in World War 2.

Finnish Army knew BA-10 and BA-10M armoured cars as BAF C armoured cars. This was the most common heavy armoured car type captured by Finnish Army from the Soviets and also the most common heavy armoured car in Finnish use during World War 2. As normal they were apparently captured during Winter War and first year of Continuation War. As mentioned the inventory information before June 1944 is limited, but it seems that Finnish Army took 13 or so of these captured armoured cars into its own use and they saw extensive use during Continuation War. First in year 1941 they were issued to separate armoured car platoons and later they were issued to Panssaridivisioona (Armour Division), who used them as command, signal, liaison and supplies transport vehicles. Some BAF C also saw use with short-lived somewhat unofficially formed Panssariosasto (Armour Detachment) of 1st Division in August - December 1941. While Finnish Army noted BAF C as most advanced version of Soviet armoured cars, it's all terrain mobility was still considered poor and engine too weak for the vehicle. Hence starting autumn of 1943 original 52-horsepower GAZ-M1 engines of all BAF C armoured cars in Finnish use were replaced with new 95-horsepower Ford V8 engines. Unfortunately the details of changes that this created to performance of the vehicle, are not known. One of the BAF C armoured cars was lost in battles of summer 1944. After World War 2 Finnish Army issued surviving 12 BAF C were issued as reconnaissance vehicles first to Panssaripataljoona (Armour Battalion) and later to Jääkäripataljoona 4 (Jaeger Battalion 4). Armoured registry numbers that Finnish Army used with BAF C armoured cars started with Ps. 27. Around 1957 - 1958 the number of these armoured cars remaining in use of Finnish Army decreased to four armoured cars and the last two of these were removed from inventory in year 1959. Nowadays Finnish Armour Museum in Parola has the only remaining armoured car of this type used by Finnish Army - Ps.27-12.

PICTURE: Side profile of the BAF C (BA-10M) armoured car. Notice extra fuel tank on top of the rear fender. (Photo taken in Panssarimuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (122 KB).

One of BAF C (BA-10) armoured cars Ps.27-11 was modified as a crane vehicle in year 1961 by removing its turret and most of armoured hull, it remained in use of Finnish Army until year 1978. This was also the only armoured car model, which Finland exported during World War 2. Year 1942 Sweden made request of possibly receiving some captured Soviet heavy armoured cars for testing purposes. Finland approved to sell three severely damaged captured BAF C armoured cars to Sweden in October of 1942. These vehicles were delivered without engines, transmission boxes and tires. The price set for them was 5,000 Swedish crows per vehicle. All three were repaired in Sweden, equipped with Swedish weapons and introduced to use of Swedish Army as pansarbil m/31F (armoured car m/31F). They remained in use of Swedish Army until 1950's and nowadays one of them is in Swedish Tank Museum in Skövde.

 

OTHER HEAVY ARMOURED CARS USED BY FINNISH ARMY:

"Pula-ajan panssariauto" ("Armoured car of depression era"): Even after massive armament programs of 1930's in summer of 1941 the Soviets found themselves having too little military equipment. So to provide more armoured vehicles for Soviet military in minimal amount of time, variety of more or less local initiatives resulted manufacturing variety of somewhat improvised armoured vehicles. These included also Izhorskiy Plant in Leningrad, which started building improvised armoured cars from existing GAZ-AA and ZIS-5 trucks for Leningrad National Home Guard (LANO) units. Total production has been estimated as about 100 vehicles. These improvised armoured cars were armoured with steel plates about 6 - 10 mm thick and armed with variety of weaponry, which included 45-mm antitank-guns, 20-mm ShVAK automatic cannons, 12.7-mm DShK machineguns, 7.62-mm Maxim, DT and DA machineguns. From these weapons 45-mm antitank-guns was limited shooting to direction where the truck was heading due to their gun mounts. Typically only engine, cab and sides of the truck body were armoured, so the armour provided only partial cover for the crew using the weapons placed on truck body. Finnish Army captured some of these vehicles in 1941 and seems to have used at least two of them in 1941 - 1942. Photos suggest that Finnish troops used them equipped with minimal weaponry - likely as primitive armoured personnel carriers or armoured towing vehicles of sort.

 


SOURCES:

Kapteeni P. Hovilainen: Tankkirykmentistä Panssaripataljoonaan 1919 – 1949.

Pekka Kantakoski: Suomalaiset Panssarivaunujoukot 1919 – 1969.

Pekka Kantakoski: Punaiset Panssarit, Puna-armeijan panssarijoukot 1918 – 1945.

Pekka Kantakoski: Panssarimuseo.

Esa Muikku ja Jukka Purhonen: Suomalaiset Panssarivaunut 1918 – 1997, The Finnish Armoured Vehicles

Erkki Käkelä: Laguksen miehet, Marskin nyrkki.

Markku Mäkipirtti: Puolustusvoimien moottoriajoneuvot 1919 - 1959.

20 mm Suomessa, Aseet ja ampumatarvikkeet ennen vuotta 1945 / 20 mm in Finland, Weapons and ammunition prior to 1945 by Mika Pitkänen and Timo Simpanen.

Jarmo Suomala: Kärkenä Äänislinnaan, Kevyt Osasto 8:n historia.

Russian Armoured Cars 1930 – 2000 by James Kinnear.

Panzerbuch der Tanks, Parts 1 – 3 by Fritz von Heigl

Heigl’s Panzerbuck der tanks, Parts 1 – 3 by O.H. Hacker, R.J. Icks, O. Merker and G.P.v. Zezchwitz.

Russian Tanks 1900 – 1970 by John Milsom.

Booklet: Panssarimuseo.

Article: Babysta ei ollut taisteluajoneuvoksi by Kari Kuusela in Ase magazine vol. 4/1987.

Article: Landsverk 182 panssariauto by Kari Kuusela in Ase magazine vol. 5/1987.

Article: BA-6, Panssariauto raskaammasta päästä by Kari Kuusela in Ase magazine vol. 2/1988.

Article: Jatkosodan aikaiset panssarivaunuyksiköt by V. Kämäri in Panssari magazine vol. 1/1974.

Special thanks to Panssarimuseo (The Armour Museum, Parola)

Special thanks to Viestimuseo (Signal Museum, Riihimäki)


Last updated 20th of July 2013
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