ARTILLERY PART 6:

Heavy Howitzers (150 mm - 155 mm)

When it comes to Finnish Army during World War 2 the heavy howitzers, with the less numerous heavy field guns, served in of heavy artillery battalions. Only during late Continuation War this changed, when some heavy howitzers, especially 155 H/17 and 152 H/09-30, were issued also to some of the field artillery regiments. During Winter War getting artillery support from heavy howitzers was still a rare treat for Finnish soldiers. When Winter War started in November of 1939 Finnish Army had heavy howitzers only for four heavy artillery battalions (typically 12 heavy guns or howitzers each). By end of Continuation the situation had changed dramatically. Thanks to numerous heavy howitzers captured from the Soviets and bought from Germany Finnish field artillery finally had heavy howitzers in real numbers. But with the shortage of both heavy trucks and fuel Finnish Field Artillery remained very much dependent on horses until end of World War 2 (and even some time after it) - this was quite visible in towing equipment of heavy artillery battalions. Most of the heavy howitzers used by Finnish Army during World War 2 were the artillery piece models used already in World War 1. While these old howitzers still packed a punch the new heavy howitzers the Soviets developed in 1930's and during World War 2 had considerably longer maximum ranges.

 

150 H/06

(150 mm howitzer model 1906)

(15 cm Positionshaubits m/06)

PICTURE: 150 H/06 heavy howitzer. Notice wheels brakes. Recoil mechanism below barrel also looks rather similar as in also Krupp designed 122 H/09 light howitzer and its modernised versions and 122 H/09-30 and 122 H/09-40. (Photo taken in Tykistömuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (58 KB).

Calibre:

149,1 mm x 100 R (separately loaded ammunition)

Barrel length:

L/11

Weight in action:

2150 kg

Muzzle velocity:

300 m/sec

Traverse:

+/- 2,5 degrees

Elevation:

- 5 degrees, + 43 degrees

Max. range:

6,5 km

Ammunition weight:

41 kg (HE)

Ammunition types:

HE

Country of origin:

Sweden (German design)

Finnish use: 12 bought from Sweden during Winter War, they arrived December 1939. Finnish Field Artillery used them during Winter War and the first few months of Continuation War. Then they were warehoused until sold back to Sweden year 1944.

This howitzer was Krupp design, which also Bofors and Asea manufactured in Sweden. Swedish military had acquired 56 of these howitzers. Their another user was Bulgaria. The Swedish remained in Swedish use until being declared obsolete in year 1944. As usual the howitzer had box trail (with large hole in middle of it), breech with horizontal sliding-wedge breech block and recoil system with hydraulic buffer and spring recuperator below barrel. As usual it also had wood wheels with steel hoops and friction brakes. However the howitzer didn't have gun shield of any kind. Towing with suitable motor vehicle and towing with horses were both possible, but motorised towing demanded limber designed specially for it to be used with the howitzer.

PICTURE: 150 H/06 heavy howitzer seen for another angle. Notice horizontal sliding breech block and structure of box trail. (Photo taken in Tykistömuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (62 KB).

Finland bought 12 of these howitzers from Sweden during Winter War and they arrived in late December 1939. During Winter War the howitzers were issued to Heavy Artillery Battalion 6, which was sent to battle in February of 1940. They saw action also during the first few months of Continuation War: Heavy Artillery Battalion 4 used them until they were replaced with captured 152 H/09-30 howitzers in October - November 1941. After being replaced 150 H/06 howitzers were warehoused until they were sold back to Sweden early 1944. The howitzer nowadays exhibited in Finnish Artillery Museum was acquired from Sweden in year 1977. As usual with heavy howitzers the ammunition used with these howitzers was separately loaded type. Finnish military used only high-explosive (HE) ammunition with them.

War:

Shots fired:

Winter War (1939-1940)

2223

Continuation War (1941-1944)

10711

Total

12934

 

150 H/14j

(150 mm howitzer model 1914, Japanese)

(15 cm Meiji 38 howitzer)

PICTURE: 150 H/14j heavy howitzer. (Photo taken in Tykistömuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (42 KB).

Calibre:

149,1 mm x 105 R (separately loaded ammunition)

149,1 mm x 135 R (separately loaded ammunition)

Barrel length:

L/12

Weight in action:

2030 kg

Muzzle velocity:

325 m/sec

Traverse:

+/- 2,5 degrees

Elevation:

- 5 degrees, + 43 degrees

Max. range:

7,2 km

Ammunition weight:

40,5 - 43,0 kg (HE)

Ammunition types:

HE

Country of origin:

Japan

Finnish use: 12 captured in Civil War of 1918. White Army didn't use them in that war. Field Artillery used during Winter War them until 11 were lost 13th of February 1940. The one non-lost one and the two recaptured in 1941 didn't see any combat use during Continuation War.

This howitzer was Krupp design known as 10,5 cm sFH 02 in Germany manufactured in Japan as Meiji 38 (model 1905 according western chronology). Japanese military bought first of these howitzers from Germany during Russian-Japanese War of 1904 - 1905 and later manufacturing of the howitzer under license. The howitzer remained in Japanese until end of the World War 2 and was also used as armament of Type 4 Ho-Ro self-propelled howitzer. During World War 1 Russian military had shortage of artillery weapons, so Russia bought these howitzers from Japan. In fact, it is likely, that the model 1914 of Finnish name to this howitzer model may originate from year the Russians bought them.

Structure-wise this howitzer is pretty typical heavy howitzer of its era. It had the usual box trail with hole in middle of it for more elevation, recoil system with hydraulic/spring buffer/recuperator below barrel and wood wheels with steel hoops. It also had screw breech and a dial sight but no gun shield. Ammunition was separately loaded type and only HE-ammunition seems to have been used in Finland. Finnish military used HE-projectiles with both TNT and ammonal (ammonium nitrate based high explosive) filling, these ammunition types were probably Russian origin (since they had been included already to Finnish artillery manuals from year 1925).

PICTURE: Another picture of 150 H/14j. Notice the interesting screw breech, which looks rather different then the ones used in Russian/Soviet artillery pieces. (Photo taken in Tykistömuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (59 KB).

In Finnish Civil War of 1918 Finnish White Army captured 12 of these howitzers. According some sources Finnish Red Guards and Russians had used them against Finnish White Army before capture, but according another source they were captured without battle use either at Huopalahti warehouses of Russian Army or Russian Garrison in Södervik (Suvilahti) - both places are in Helsinki area. Either way White Army didn't use them during Civil War. These dozen heavy howitzers might not see much in scale of this day, but considering the weaponry situation of Finnish military before Winter War they were very important - all other heavy howitzer models in Finnish use at that time were even less numerous. Being the only howitzers numerous enough to arm whole Heavy Artillery Battalion (of 12 guns/howitzers) they became main training weaponry for Finnish heavy field artillery before World War 2. In late 1930's four of the howitzers were in training use of Civil Guard (Suojeluskunta) artillery units, while eight remained in use of Heavy Artillery Regiment (principal heavy artillery training unit for Finnish Army). The training use took its toll - ammunition for them was in short supply already before Winter War. In mobilisation for Winter War all 12 howitzers were issued to Heavy Artillery Battalion 2, which supported Finnish troops in vitally important Summa sector of Mannerheim-line. Because of their short range the howitzers they had to be close to frontline. 13th of February 1940 Soviets achieved breach in Lähde sector of Summa, due to breakdown in communications Heavy Artillery Battalion 2 didn't receive information about this in time. So the tanks roared into fire positions of Heavy Artillery Battalion 2 without alarm. Surprised howitzer crews had no change of fighting back and 11 of these horse-towed howitzers were lost in matter of minutes. Only one 150 H/14j howitzer survived in Finnish hands that day - it had been under repair in Viipuri/Wiborg when the others were lost. When Continuation War started and Finnish troops took back the lost areas in Carelian Isthmus two of the 150 H/14j lost in Summa were recaptured in Perkjärvi, where the Soviets had warehoused them after Winter War. Three howitzers were still too little for reintroducing them to combat use, but one of the recaptured howitzers got a prestigious job: The Finns set it on pedestal to replace statue of Lenin centre of Äänislinna/Petroskoi/Petrozavosk city. Once the Soviets recaptured the city in 1944 they in their own turn replaced the howitzer with Lenin statue. The remaining two howitzers didn't see any use after World War 2 either. The only howitzer that avoided capture in February of 1940 is nowadays in Finnish Artillery Museum.

War:

Shots fired:

Winter War (1939-1940)

4502

Continuation War (1941-1944)

0

Total

4502

 

150 H/15

(15 cm howitzer model 1915)

(15 cm Schwere Felthaubitze 15)

(15 cm hruba houfnice vz. 15)

(15 cm sFH 15 (t) / 15 cm sFH 15 (ö))

PICTURE: 150 H/15 howitzer ready for transport. Notice how the barrel had been pulled back for transport and seat for soldier using the brakes in side of the gun carriage. (Photo taken in Tykistömuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (68 KB).

Calibre:

149,1 mm x 318 R (separately loaded ammunition)

Barrel length:

L/20

Weight in action:

5560 kg

Muzzle velocity:

218 - 508 m/sec

Traverse:

+/- 4 degrees

Elevation:

- 5 degrees, + 65 degrees

Max. range:

10,6 km

Ammunition weight:

42,0 - 42,6 kg (HE), 42 kg (APHE), 26 kg (HEAT)

Ammunition types:

HE, APHE, HEAT (1944), shrapnel

Country of origin:

Austria-Hungary

Finnish use: 20 howitzers bought from Germany arrived in October of 1940. Field Artillery used them during early Continuation War. After that they were pulled off from use of Field Artillery and most were warehoused, but some were issued to Fortification Artillery.

This Austro-Hungarian howitzer of Skoda Works was really rare - only 57 were ever manufactured. The howitzers saw action in with Austro-Hungarian military during WW1 and once the war ended Czechoslovakia and Austria got most of them, while Romania also had some. Before World War 2 the Germans took weaponry of Czechoslovakian and Austrian Armies without battle. Among other weaponry they also captured number of these howitzers and issued 42 of them for fortification use for early World War 2.

Skoda Works had developed the howitzer from earlier fortification howitzer and the relation was visible in transport method - the howitzer could be transported dismantled to four separate loads. However, usually the howitzers was towed, preparations for this demanded barrel being pulled back and additional axle (limber of sort) installed below the howitzers trail. Two seats for soldiers using manual wheel brakes of the howitzer during towing could also be installed to its sides. Howitzer had the typical box trail, gun shield with two holes (one of which for aiming direct fire with dial sight) and wood wheels with steel hoops. Recoil mechanism containing pneumatic/hydraulic buffer/recuperator was located below barrel and the howitzer breech mechanism had horizontal sliding breech block. Sights used with the howitzer were Austro-Hungarian originals: Main sight was M8/14 dial sight, secondary sight was diopter-sight M9/12. Howitzers axle was suspended with leaf springs. Weight of the howitzer during transport was 6,357 kg.

Finland bought 20 of these howitzers from Germany after Winter War in 1940. The whole shipment of 20 howitzers arrived with S/S Widor in 9th of October 1940. They were issued to three motorised Heavy Artillery Battalions (21st, 22nd and 28th) for Continuation War. Later the howitzers were pulled off from their use. Some of them were warehoused and the rest issued to Maaselkä Fortification Artillery Battalions. Finnish soldiers didn't like 150 H/15 howitzers, as they considered the howitzers too heavy and clumsy. Even if they were heavy and clumsy the fortification artillery still managed evacuating them all during retreat in summer of 1944. Educated guess would be that Fortification Artillery could well have considered these to best the most modern heavy weaponry they had, so the efforts would have been concentrated in saving them, while very limited number of towing vehicles resulted other older guns to be left behind.

Ammunition listed in Finnish ammunition manuals included high explosive (HE), armoure pierching high explosive (APHE), shrapnel and high-explosive antitank tracer (HEAT-T) ammunition. As Finnish military considered all shrapnel ammunition ineffective it probably didn't see much use. Obviously HE-ammunition was the typical ammunition used. APHE-projectile was 150 tkrv 62/-ps28 manufactured in Czechoslovakia (its fuse was m/1928), which weight 42,0 kg and had clearly been intended for knocking out bunkers and such. HEAT-T ammunition was last reserve for the emergency use in case enemy tanks would try overrunning any Artillery Battery armed with these howitzers (heavy howitzer with weight of over 5,500 kg and slow rate-of-fire doesn't exactly make a good antitank gun). HEAT-T used with this howitzer projectile was same 150 hkrv rj-Vj 39 HL/A 33/43-Np/23 as used with German 150 H/40 (15 cm sFH 18) howitzers and added to ammunition manuals in August of 1944 (likely it was introduced already few months earlier).

War:

Shots fired:

Winter War (1939-1940)

0

Continuation War (1941-1944)

24872

Total

24872

 

150 H/40

(150 mm howitzer model 1940)

(15 cm sFH 18)

PICTURE: 150 H/40 heavy howitzer. Notice recoil system below/above barrel and original wheels. (Photo taken in Tykistömuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (58 KB).

Calibre:

149 mm x 260 R (separately loaded ammunition)

Barrel length:

L/30

Weight in action:

5530 kg

Muzzle velocity:

515 m/sec

Traverse:

+/- 30 degrees

Elevation:

- 3 degrees, + 45 degrees

Max. range:

13,0 km

Ammunition weight:

38,2 - 43,5 kg (HE), 26 kg (HEAT)

Ammunition types:

HE, HEAT (1944), APHE, smoke, flare

Country of origin:

Germany

Finnish use: 48 howitzers bought from Germany late 1940. During Continuation War they were issued to motorised Artillery Battalions of Field Artillery.

This howitzer was developed in Germany in late 1920's. Rheinmetall designed the actual howitzer while the gun carriage was Krupp design. The "18" in German name of the howitzer falsely suggested it being designed in 1918. The reason for this was Versailles peace treaty, which prohibited developing and manufacturing of heavy artillery from the Germans. Mass production of the howitzer started in 1933. The companies taking part in mass-production included: Krupp, Rheinmetall, Spreewerke, M.A.N. and Skoda. The howitzer became principal German Army heavy howitzer for duration of World War 2 and the German military named it with nickname Immergrün (evergreen). It also was the first artillery weapon even equipped with rocket-assisted-projectile (RAP) ammunition to increase range. However German interest to this special ammunition didn't last long when dispersion with this early RAP-ammunition proved too large to accept. Especially Soviet artillery with its modern 152-mm gun-howitzers proved difficult opponent to German artillery during World War 2, so the Germans military wanted range of this howitzer increased. To make this the Germans introduced new version called 15 cm sFH 18(M), which could use larger propellant charge. But this could not be achieved without price - muzzle of the howitzer wore out faster and muzzle brake needed to be added to design to reduce the stress, which the increased propellant charge caused to recoil-system. The howitzer was also used in self-propelled artillery piece Schwere Panzerhaubitze 18/1 (more commonly known as Hummel), which entered production in 1942. Also Italian Army used 15 cm sFH 18 howitzer, but called it Obice da 149/28. After WW2 its users included Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Portugal and Yugoslavia.

The howitzer had split trail, recoil system with hydraulic buffer and pneumatic recuperator located above and below barrel and breech mechanism with horizontal sliding breech block. The howitzer didn't have gun shield and had been designed suitable for both motorised towing and being towed with horses. The maximum speed for motorised towing was 60 km/h. Rate of fire was about 4 shots/minute. The howitzer had steel wheels covered with layer or rubber. Small limber was used with the howitzer during towing, but it wasn't necessary if heavy truck was used as towing vehicle. The Germans don't seem to have had special winter equipment for the howitzer, but the Finns had - special sledge designed for heavy artillery pieces could be used in front of the howitzer if its assistance was needed with snow.

PICTURE: Another pic of 150 H/40. Notice split trail and horizontal sliding breech block.(Photo taken in Tykistömuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (55 KB).

Finland bought 48 howitzers 150 sFH 18 from Germany and named them 150 H/40. Unlike most artillery Finland bought from Germany after Winter War these howitzers were factory new. They arrived 9th of October 1940 and for Continuation War they were issued to four (2nd, 13th, 14th and 15th) motorised Heavy Artillery Battalions of Field Artillery. These four Heavy Artillery Battalions were important part of Field Artillery reserves directly under command of Finnish Army General HQ. The towing vehicles issued to these four artillery units were also the best Finnish Army could offer - International K-7 heavy trucks, which Finland had bought during Winter War from United States. Also McGormick TD-14 bulldozers (bought from USA during Winter War) were issued to these units and used as towing tractors, which assisted in getting the howitzers to their firing positions and off. Finnish soldiers generally liked 150 H/40 howitzers, which proved good weapons in summer, but demanded good maintenance to work reliably also in winter - the recuperator proved unreliable in freezing cold and rubber layer of the wheels wasn't too durable either. None of the howitzers were lost in summer of 1944. Finnish Army lost only one these howitzers during Word War 2 - during Lapland War one them suffered premature detonation (HE-shell exploded while still inside barrel, reason was probably faulty fuse) and the explosion damaged the howitzer beyond repair.

Ammunition used with the howitzer was separately loaded type with 8 propellant charge sizes. Ammunition selection for the howitzer was quite remarkable. Finnish ammunition manuals list high explosive (HE), smoke, flare, armour piercing high explosive (APHE) and high explosive antitank tracer (HEAT-T) for Finnish Army use with this howitzer. The ammunition suitable for antitank use used in Finland included:

After World War 2 these howitzers remained in limited training use (Finnish military didn't want to cause them too much wear) and reserved for possible wartime use until 1990 or so. Between 1990 - 1992 the 150 H/40 howitzers were modernised as 152 H 88-40. The most important parts of this modernisation were replacing original barrel with new 152.4-mm Vammas L/32 howitzer barrel and adding of gun shield. Smaller changes included adding new muzzle brake and modifications to gun carriage, axle and wheels. Naturally the new wheels had pneumatic tires and some (now unnecessary) parts of the old equipment were also removed from the howitzers. Finnish Defence Forces kept 152 H 88-40 howitzers warehoused for possible wartime use until year 2007, at which point decision was made to declare these howitzers obsolete and scrap them.

War:

Shots fired:

Winter War (1939-1940)

0

Continuation War (1941-1944)

136286

Total

136286

 

152 H/10

(152 mm howitzer model 1910)

(6 dm polevaja gaubitsa sistemy Schneidera)

(15,2 cm sFH 446 (r))

PICTURE: 152 H/10 heavy howitzer. Compare recoil system to photos of 122 H/10-30 light howitzer, which was modernised version of Schneider designed 122 H/10.(Photo taken in Tykistömuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (63 KB).

Calibre:

152,4 mm x 212 R (separately loaded ammunition)

Barrel length:

L/12,5

Weight in action:

2250 kg

Muzzle velocity:

335 m/sec

Traverse:

+/- 3 degrees

Elevation:

- 1 degrees, + 42 degrees

Max. range:

7,7 - 8,0 km

Ammunition weight:

43,5 kg (HE)

Ammunition types:

HE

Country of origin:

Russia

Finnish use: Nine howitzers captured during Civil War in year 1918. None were used in that war. Field Artillery used eight howitzers in Winter War and seven howitzers early in Continuation War. Then the much worn howitzers were pulled off from use and warehoused until being declared obsolete in 1966.

This howitzer was Schneider design manufactured under license in Imperial Russia. Presumably their manufacturer was Putilov. The howitzer was in large-scale use with Russian Field Artillery during World War 1. This howitzer is related to 155-mm French howitzers that Schneider introduced during WW1. The howitzers were still in Soviet use during WW2 and the Germans captured some, but didn't issue them. The Soviets also had modernised version of this howitzer called 152 mm gaubitsa obr. 1910/30 g., but Finnish Army never captured any of them. Technically the howitzer was pretty usual to its time: Box trail (with hole in the middle), breech mechanism with screw breech and recoil mechanism with hydraulic/pneumatic buffer/recuperator below barrel. Gun shield had inclined lower part and hole for aiming direct fire with dial sight. Original wheels were wood with steel hoops, but later these were replaced with steel wheels covered with sponge rubber tires. The howitzers were suitable both for motorised towing and towing with horses.

PICTURE: Closer look behind gun shild of 152 H/10. Dial sight in there, but screw breech seems like it might be missing some parts. (Photo taken in Tykistömuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (51 KB).

In Finnish Civil War of 1918 Finnish White Army captured nine of these howitzers. Most were captured in Helsinki/ Helsingfors and the rest in Viipuri/Wiborg. None saw battle use during Civil War. Before World War 2 they served as training equipment for the heavy Field Artillery of the Army. For Winter War the remaining eight howitzers were issued to Heavy Artillery Battalion 4, which supported Finnish troops in Taipale sector of Mannerheim-line. When Continuation War started seven howitzers were given to Heavy Artillery Battalion 30, while one was kept in one in the home front for training. However the long career had already made the howitzers quite worn and they soon started to be too worn out one after another and had be pulled off from use. After this they remained warehoused for rest of the war. For some odd reason these few old worn-out howitzers were kept warehoused until being declared obsolete in year 1966. Finnish army used only one kind of ammunition with them: high explosive (HE). The ammunition was separately loaded type with four propellant charge sizes. The usual HE-projectile weight 43.5-kg, but according year 1925 manual also certain HE-projectiles manufactured for 152-mm Canet coastal gun could be used with these howitzers. The number of shots fired with these howitzers during World War 2 is not known.

 

152 H/09-30

(152 mm howitzer model 1909 modernised 1930)

(6 dm krepostnaja gaubitsa sistemy Schneidera obr. 1909/1930 g.)

(152 mm gaubitsa obr. 1909/30 g.)

(15,2 cm sFH 445 (r))

PICTURE: 152 H/09-30 heavy howitzer. Certain books written in English claim that the gun shield collected mud into mechanisms of the gun carriage during towing. However this seems rather exaggerated - if mud reaches the gun shield the howitzer is already in mud axle deep and not going anywhere anytime soon. :-) Also: No complaint anywhere about this with French 155 H/17 howitzer, which had almost indentical gun shield. (Photo taken in Tykistömuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (64 KB).

Calibre:

152,4 mm x 239 R (separately loaded ammunition)

Barrel length:

L/14

Weight in action:

3000 kg

Muzzle velocity:

382 - 385 m/sec

Traverse:

+/- 2,5 / 3 degrees

Elevation:

- 1 degrees, + 37,5 degrees

Max. range:

9,5 km

Ammunition weight:

40,0 - 40,6 kg (HE), 38,8 kg (APHE)

Ammunition types:

HE, APHE

Country of origin:

Soviet Union

Finnish use: 14 howitzers captured in Winter War and 85 howitzers in Continuation War. Field Artillery used them during Continuation War.

This howitzer was modernised version of 152 mm gaubitsa obr. 1909 g. howitzer, which was Schneider design manufactured under license in Russia. Soviets had modernised the obr. 1909 g. howitzer (which had been originally designed mainly as fortification howitzer) in early 1930's. In modernisation the room for propellant charge had been enlarged and to counter increased stress the larger propellant charges caused the gun carriage was reinforced and muzzle brake was added. The howitzer was still in large-scale use with Soviet Red Army during early WW2. Like other artillery weapons originating from Imperial days Soviets had planned to replace them with more modern designs, but starting of the war increased the demand of artillery pieces so much that they could not afford to be picky. As usual the Germans captured quite a few of these howitzers and issued some to their own coastal defence.

The howitzer had box trail (with hole in middle of it), breech mechanism with screw breech, gun shield and recoil system with hydraulic buffer and pneumatic recuperator. Original wheels were wood with steel hoops, but later Soviets introduced new steel wheels with sponge rubber tires (however most or all Finnish captured howitzers had the old wheels). It was suitable both for motorised towing and for towing with horses. The highest possible towing speed with motor vehicle was only 20 km/hour (due to weakness of towing system?). The maximum rate of fire was about 4 shots/minute.

PICTURE: Closer look behind gun shield of 152 H/09-30. Notice dial sight and screw breech. (Photo taken in Tykistömuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (45 KB).

Finnish Army captured 14 howitzers in Winter War and 85 howitzers in Continuation War. The captured howitzers saw large used with Finnish Field Artillery in Continuation War. During that war they were issued to four Field Artillery Regiments and four Heavy Artillery Battalions, some of which were motorised and some horse-towed. Finnish soldiers rated the howitzer fair in usability - it was too heavy to be effectively horse-towed and towing system was not durable in motorised towing. Finnish Army lost 14 of these howitzers in 1944: Eight of the lost howitzers were lost by 4th Army Cops in Carelian Isthmus and 6 lost north of Lake Ladoga belonged to Field Artillery Regiment 11. As large amounts of readily made ammunition existed the howitzers were used in live-fire training until 1980's.

Ammunition Finnish military used with these howitzers was separately loaded type with 5 propellant charge sizes. Ammunition selection included seven high explosive (HE) projectiles and one armour-piercing high explosive (APHE) projectile, which the Soviets had intended for bunker busting. This APHE-projectile was captured Soviet 152 pstkr 52/65-ps KTD, which weight 38.80-kg and had TNT filling.

War:

Shots fired:

Winter War (1939-1940) (*)

3985

Continuation War (1941-1944)

92033

Total

96018

(*) None of the howitzers were yet issued during Winter War, so I would consider this information quite uncertain, as it doesn't seem to make sense.

 

152 H/15 and 152 H/17

(152 mm howitzer model 1915)

(152 mm howitzer model 1917)

(Canon de 155 C Mk 1915 Schneider (6''))

(Canon de 155 C Mk 1917 Schneider (6''))

Calibre:

H/15: 152,4 mm x 212 R (separately loaded ammunition)

H/17: 152,4 mm (bagged ammunition)

Barrel length:

L/12

Weight in action:

3300 kg

Muzzle velocity:

443 m/sec

Traverse:

+/- 3 degrees

Elevation:

- 0 degrees, + 42,3 degrees

Max. range:

11,2 km

Ammunition weight:

43,6 kg (HE)

Ammunition types:

HE

Country of origin:

France

Finnish use: Four 152 H/15 and eight 152 H/17 howitzers bought from France in late 1920's. Field Artillery use them in both Winter War and Continuation War.

After WW1 French factory Schneider was ready to manufacture its WW1 era howitzers in various calibre for export. These howitzers, which Finland bought in 1920's, had same basic structure as in Schneider howitzer models 1915 and 1917, but were ordered in 152.4-mm calibre for ammunition compatibility with captured Russian howitzers. In fact 152 H/15 used even same cartridge cases for their cartridge-seated ammunition as Russian 152 H/10 captured in 1918. Twelve of these howitzers were delivered to Finland: Four 152 H/15 and eight 152 H/17. They arrived in several batches in years 1925 - 1926 and 1929. In Finland all the twelve howitzers were used together and usually just called as 152 H/15/17.

Both howitzer models had the usual box trail, gun shield curved from its lower part (typical to Schneider designs), screw breech and recoil system with hydraulic buffer and pneumatic recuperator below barrel. Both howitzers also lacked wheel brakes. Barrels used in both howitzers was similar, but ammunition was different (cartridge-seated for 152 H/15 and bagged for 152 H/17). Wheels were also different: Originally 152 H/15 had wood wheels with steel hoops and its wheels were later replaced with wheels which had sponge rubber tires, while 152 H/17 had wood wheels with steel hoops covered with solid rubber layer. 152 H/15 had also been designed as horse-towed while 152 H/17 was more suitable to motorised towing. Before WW2 the howitzers were used as training equipment. In 1928 Italian Pavesi tractors were acquired and used as their towing vehicles from that on. For Winter War all 152 H/15 howitzers were issued to Heavy Artillery Battalion 3 and all 152 H/15 howitzers to 3rd Separate Heavy Artillery Battery. Early in the Continuation War the howitzers were issued to Heavy Artillery Battalions 24 and 25, but both got them replaced before end of the war. Later on also Field Artillery Regiment 3 used both howitzer models. Only one of these howitzers was lost in summer of 1944 - 152 H/15, which belonged to Heavy Artillery Battalion 24.

As mentioned already the ammunition for these two howitzers were different:

- 152 H/15 used separately loaded ammunition: Propellant bags were inside cartridge case, primer was in bottom of cartridge case and projectile was loaded separately before loading cartridge case.

- 152 H/17 used bagged ammunition: Projectile, propellant bags and primer were loaded separately one after another. No cartridge case existed. Needless to say this was made reloading slower then with separately loaded ammunition.

Both kind of ammunition used the same projectiles and only ammunition types, which Finnish Army had for them were high explosive (HE) projectiles and shrapnel. From these two ammunition types shrapnel was not usually used, leaving HE-ammunition as only ammunition type used. Both howitzers had seven propellant charge sizes for achieving different kind of trajectories. When WW2 ended the howitzers were seriously worn, so they didn't see any use after that.

War:

Shots fired:

Winter War (1939-1940)

5403

Continuation War (1941-1944)

16186

Total

21589

 

152 H/37

(152 mm howitzer model 1937)

(152 mm Gaubitsa-Pushka obr. 1937 g.)

(ML-20) (M-1937)

(15,2 cm KH 433/1 (r))

PICTURE: 152 H/37 heavy howitzer. (Photo taken in Tykistömuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (66 KB).

Calibre:

152,4 mm x 260 R (separately loaded ammunition)

Barrel length:

L/32

Weight in action:

7270 kg

Muzzle velocity:

650 m/sec

Traverse:

+/- 29 degrees

Elevation:

- 2 degrees, + 65 degrees

Max. range:

17,2 km

Ammunition weight:

49 kg (HE), 38,8 kg (APHE)

Ammunition types:

HE, APHE

Country of origin:

Soviet Union

Finnish use: 37 howitzers captured during Continuation War. 27 howitzers bought from Germany in year 1944. Field artillery and coastal artillery used them during Continuation War.

Armour penetration:

- "Artillery of the World" (APHE-round):

distance

hitting angle

penetration

1000 m

90 degree?

124 mm

- "Guns vs. Armour" website by D.M. Honner (BR-540 APHE-projectile, weight 48,8 kg 655 m/sec):

distance

hitting angle

penetration

1000 m

90 degrees

120 mm

2000 m

90 degrees

110 mm

This was one of the first gun howitzers (artillery piece able to fire projectiles with both field gun and howitzer like trajectories). Like equally successful 122 H/38 light howitzer also this gun howitzer was creation of design team lead by F.F. Petrov. It was designed in mid 1930's as part of new Soviet field artillery arsenal designed to replace the modernised World War 1 era howitzers. It also proved to be one of the best artillery weapons of World War 2. Being in large-scale use with Soviet Red Army Field Artillery during WW2 its excellent range and powerful projectiles were considerable headache to German artillery. Once can only speculate the effectiveness that the weapon showed also in counter-artillery use was not an accident. As expected the Germans captured also quite a few of these howitzers and reissued them besides their Field Artillery also to their Coastal Artillery. German military knew the weapon as 15,2 cm KH 433/1(r). During World War 2 the Soviets also developed version called ML-20S, which they used as main armament of their heavy assault guns SU-152 and ISU-152. After the war the Soviets delivered large number of these howitzers to their allies and they is still use in some 3rd world countries even today.

The gun howitzer had same split trail as used in 122-mm Soviet M-1931/37 (122 K/31) heavy field gun, gun shield with hole for aiming direct fire with dial sight and similar screw breech as used in 152 mm gaubitsa obr. 1909/30 g. (152 H/09-30) heavy howitzer. Recoil mechanism with hydraulic buffer and pneumatic recuperator was located below barrel and large "horns" (equilibrators) in both sides of the barrel. Muzzle of the long barrel had multi-baffle muzzle brake. The gun howitzer also had twin road wheels, which originally were steel wheels covered with layer of solid rubber. The artillery piece had been designed for motorised towing, equipment needed for towing it included "wheeled axle with towing arm" kind of limber. Early version of the gun howitzer had m 1934 barrel. The weapon also was a really heavy weight - it was clearly the heaviest of heavy howitzers used by Finnish Army during World War 2. For example the gun howitzers 423-cm long barrel weight 2,250 kg (more than total weight of some heavy howitzers in Finnish use), muzzle brake weight 90-kg and screw breech about 60-kg. According most sources the rate of fire was around 3 - 4 shots/minute. The twin original twin wheel was some 31-cm wide.

PICTURE: Closer look behind gun shield of 152 H/37 howitzer. Notice twin wheels, muzzle brake and "horns" (equilibrators).(Photo taken in Tykistömuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (70 KB).

Finnish Army captured 37 of these howitzers (Finnish military categorised them just as howitzers, no matter technical terms) during Continuation War. In addition 27 howitzers were bought from Germany in 1944. The 27 howitzers bought from Germany arrived in two ships: 16 howitzers with S/S Capella 21st of February 1944 and 11 howitzers with S/S Kollaa 18th of March 1944. During Continuation War the howitzers were used by four heavy artillery battalions (18th, 28th, 39th and 40th) of field artillery and three motorised heavy artillery batteries (1st, 2nd and 8th) of coastal artillery. Finnish soldiers liked these howitzers, but considered them bit too heavy. Six of them were lost in summer of 1944. Two of the lost howitzers belonged to Heavy Artillery Battalion 18, which lost them in Vaskisavotta area of Carelian Isthmus in 10th of June. Another four lost 152 H/37 belonged to 3rd Motorized Heavy Artillery Battery of coastal artillery, they were lost after breaktrough in Valkeasaari around the same time.

Finnish military knew these howitzers also as 152 H 37-40 at certain time (from 1944 to 1960's it seems). After 2nd World War they remained in training use and reserved for possible wartime use all the way to 1980's. In end of 1980's the remaining 152 H 37 howitzers were modernised as 152 H 37 A. In this modernisation they got new towing equipment and pneumatic brakes, rear reflectors and antenna for measuring muzzle velocity were added. However 152 H 37 A proved short-lived design. Soon Finnish military decided arrange more drastic modernising of certain other (150/40) heavy howitzer and field gun (122 K/31) models. The slightly modernised 152 H 37 A would not have been in the same level as them, so in early 1990's it was modernised for the second time. This second modernisation created howitzer known as 152 H 88-37A, which has new 152.4-mm calibre Vammas L/32 long howitzer barrel. Finnish Defence Forces keeps 152 H 88-37A howitzers warehoused for possible wartime use until recently. Year 2007 Finnish military declared 152 H 88-37A howitzers obsolete and decided to scrap them.

152 H/37 howitzer used separately loaded ammunition with 5 propellant charge sizes. Finnish military used only two types of ammunition with this howitzer: High explosive (HE) and armour piercing high explosive (APHE). HE-ammunition was naturally the ammunition-type usually used. APHE-ammunition had been captured from the Soviets and intended for destroying bunkers. Finnish military called this APHE-projectile also used with 152 H/09-30 and 152 H/38 howitzers 152 pstkr 52/65-ps KTD.

War:

Shots fired:

Winter War (1939-1940)

0

Continuation War (1941-1944)

35469

Total

35469

 

152 H/38

(152 mm howitzer model 1938)

(152 mm Gaubitsa obr. 1938 g.)

(M-10)

(15,2 cm sFH 443(r))

PICTURE: 152 H/38 heavy howitzer. Notice twin wheels and gun shield. The plug closing barrel with reflector is post-war addition. :-) (Photo taken in yard of Sotamuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (61 KB).

Calibre:

152,4 mm x 305 R (separately loaded ammunition)

Barrel length:

L/24

Weight in action:

4150 kg

Muzzle velocity:

466 m/sec

Traverse:

+/- 25,8 degrees

Elevation:

- 1 degrees, + 65 degrees

Max. range:

9,7 - 11,7 km

Ammunition weight:

40,9 kg (HE), 38,8 kg (APHE)

Ammunition types:

HE, APHE

Country of origin:

Soviet Union

Finnish use: 45 howitzers captured during Continuation War and 57 howitzers bought from Germany in 1944. Field artillery used them during Continuation War.

Armour penetration:

- "Guns vs. Armour" website by D.M. Honner (Naval 1915/18 APHE, 52 kg projectile, 436 m/sec):

distance

hitting angle

Penetration

100 m

90 degrees

90 mm

500 m

90 degrees

87 mm

1000 m

90 degrees

82 mm

1500 m

90 degrees

78 mm

2000 m

90 degrees

74 mm

100 m

60 degrees

73 mm

500 m

60 degrees

71 mm

1000 m

60 degrees

67 mm

1500 m

60 degrees

64 mm

2000 m

60 degrees

60 mm

- "Artillery of the World" (Semi-AP round):

distance

hitting angle

Penetration

1000 m

90 degree?

82 mm

Design team lead by A.A. Iljin designed this Soviet howitzer in late 1930's. Presumably it had been intended as replacement for modernised World War 1 era heavy howitzers. The howitzer was in large-scale use with Soviet Red Army during World War 2 and seems to have been quite popular. As can be expected the Germans captured some during the war, named them 15,2 cm sFH 443(r) and reissued to their own Field Artillery. Soviets also used barrel of this howitzer to produce highly successful 152 mm gaubitsa obr. 1943 g. (D-1).

The howitzer had split trail, gun shield and screw breech with same parts at in 152 H/09-30, but the parts had been arranged in a different way (change caused by different location of safety). Recoil system with hydraulic buffer and pneumatic recuperator was located below barrel and balancing spring "horns" (equilibrators) were on both sides of the barrel. The howitzer also had twin road wheels made from steel with sponge rubber tires. It had been designed for motorised towing with "wheeled axle and towing arm" like limber and could be towed this way with towing speed up to 35 km/h. This limber used with it weight only 61-kg. The twin wheels used were some 36-cm wide and the howitzer weight about 4,550-kg while ready for transport. Rate of fire varied around 2 - 4 shots/minute.

PICTURE: Side view of 152 H/38 heavy howitzer. (Photo taken in Tykistömuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (49 KB).

Finnish Army captured 45 of these howitzers during Continuation War and additional 57 howitzers were bought from Germany in 1944. 13 of the howitzers arrived from Germany already 18th of March 1944, but the rest didn't arrive until July - August of that year. During Continuation War these howitzers were issued to five Heavy Artillery Battalions (1st, 13th, 21st, 22nd and 23rd/33rd) and Heavy Artillery Battalion of 3rd Brigade. Finnish soldiers liked the howitzer and considered it heavy but accurate artillery piece. Seven howitzers were lost in summer of 1944. After the war the howitzers remained in training use and reserved for possible wartime use until late 1990's. Modernising them was considered in 1980's, but when Iron Curtain fall down the ex East-German 152-mm D-20 (152 H 55) howitzers became available with very reasonable price. Finnish military decided to forget old 152 H/38 howitzers and instead bought large number of 152 H 55 (D-20) howitzers from Germany between 1992 - 1993. Last of the 152 H/38 howitzers were not removed from Finnish Army inventories until around 1999 - 2000.

Ammunition used with this howitzer was separately loaded type. Finnish Army used only two kinds of ammunition with it: High explosive (HE) and armour piercing high explosive (APHE). HE-ammunition was what usually used, while APHE-projectile mainly intended for busting bunkers was same captured Soviet projectile 152 pstkr 52/65-ps KTD Finnish military used also with 152 H/09-30 and 152 H/37 howitzers.

War:

Shots fired:

Winter War (1939-1940)

0

Continuation War (1941-1944)

34817

Total

34817

 

155 H/15

(155 mm howitzer model 1915)

(Canon de 155 C, mle 1915 St. Chamond)

(15,5 cm cm sFH 415 (f))

PICTURE: 155 H/15 heavy howitzer. (Photo taken in Tykistömuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (67 KB).

Calibre:

155 mm x 250 R (separately loaded ammunition)

Barrel length:

L/17,8

Weight in action:

3040 kg

Muzzle velocity:

265 - 367 m/sec

Traverse:

+/- 2,7 degrees

Elevation:

- 5 degrees, + 40 degrees

Max. range:

6,9 - 9,0 km

Ammunition weight:

43,0 - 43,5 kg (HE)

Ammunition types:

HE

Country of origin:

France

Finnish use: 24 howitzers were bought from France during Winter War, they arrived too late to see action in that war. Field Artillery used the howitzers during Continuation War.

French Saint-Chamond factory had designed this howitzer for export market, but when World War 1 started French Army became the main customer for this howitzer and (depending source) some 360 - 390 of these howitzers were manufactured for it during WW1. However Canon de 155C, mle 1917 Schneider howitzer manufactured by competing Schneider factory proved better during the war, so manufacture of this Saint-Chamond howitzer was stopped. However, the already manufactured howitzers remained in use of French military until 1940, when the Germans invaded France. Weaponry captured by German military in France included almost 200 of these howitzers, so the Germans reissued large number of them for their own units (mostly to coastal defences located in France).

Certain characteristics of the howitzer were quite advanced for its time: It had semi-automatic breech mechanism with vertical sliding breech block, which after firing a shot ejected the used cartridge case. Elevation system of the howitzer didn't tilt the barrel (as usual), but lifted forward part of gun carriage from the axle. Instead of usual dial-sight the howitzer had collimator and angle-director as sights. It also had the conventional box trail (with hole in middle of it for achieving more elevation), wood wheels with steel hoops and recoil mechanism with spring/hydraulic buffer/recuperator system located below barrel. Gun shield was unusually low and gave only limited protection to crew. Rate of fire was around 2 - 3 shots/minute.

PICTURE: Side view of 155 H/15 heavy howitzer. (Photo taken in Tykistömuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (58 KB).

Finland bought 24 howitzers from France during Winter War. Depending source either 20,000 or 32,000 shots were bought with these howitzers. The howitzers arrived in beginning of March 1940 and were issued to Heavy Artillery Battery 8. However Winter War ended (in 13th of March) before the unit reached front. Heavy Artillery Battalions 27 and 29 used the howitzers during Continuation War. None of the howitzers were lost in battle. As mentioned the ammunition used was separately loaded type with six propellant charge sizes. Only kind of ammunition Finnish manuals list for these howitzers was high-explosive (HE) type.

War:

Shots fired:

Winter War (1939-1940)

0

Continuation War (1941-1944)

42094

Total

42094

 

155 H/17 Tuhkaluukku

(155 mm howitzer model 1917 "ash box door")

(Canon de 155 C, mle 1917 Schneider)

(15,5 sFH 414 (f))

PICTURE: 155 H/17 heavy howitzer. (Photo taken in Tykistömuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (69 KB).

Calibre:

155 mm x ? (separately loaded ammunition)

Barrel length:

L/15

Weight in action:

3300 kg

Muzzle velocity:

448 - 453 m/sec

Traverse:

+/- 6 degrees

Elevation:

- 0 degrees, + 42,3 degrees

Max. range:

10,3 - 11,0 km

Ammunition weight:

43,0 - 43,6 kg (HE)

Ammunition types:

HE

Country of origin:

France

Finnish use: 166 howitzers were bought from Germany during Continuation War. They saw large-scale use with Field Artillery during Continuation War.

This howitzer was related to previous also Schneider designed Russian 6 dm polevaja gaubitsa sistemy Schneidera (152 H/10) heavy howitzer. The howitzer entered (first) to service of French Army in 1917 and soon proved excellent artillery weapon. Bit more then 2,000 were still in use of French Army in 1939 - 1940. The howitzer also was very successful abroad. It was known as "155 mm howitzer M1917" in United States, where the howitzer and its improved version "155 mm howitzer M1917A1" were manufactured under license. In Poland the howitzer was known as "155 mm haubica wz. 1917" and in Italy "Obice de 155/14 PB". Some where also delivered to Russia, where the Soviets later modified them in 152.4-mm calibre (version commonly known as "152-17S"). Other user countries included: Belgium, Brazil, Greece, Romania and Yugoslavia. Being so numerous and widely spread large number of these howitzers fell to German hands when they occupied these countries. The Germans called the most numerous version (previously owned by France) as "15,5 sFH 414" and Soviet version "15,2 cm sFH 449 (r)". The captured howitzers saw use with both German Field Artillery and coastal defence.

The howitzers basic design was quite conventional for its time. It had box trail (with the usual hole in middle of it), screw breech, recoil system with hydraulic buffer and pneumatic recuperator and curved gun shield. Wheels were wood with steel hoops. The howitzers were equipped suitable for both motorised towing and being towed with horses. Limber was used while towing it with horses and could also be used in slow motorised towing. For faster motorised towing the howitzer had Finnish-made special limber with pneumatic tires and separate towing arm. During wintertime Finnish Army could also use its own special sledge in front of the howitzer to make towing of the howitzer in snow covered roads easier. Maximum speed for towing with horses was 8 km/h and maximum speed in motorised towing but without special Finnish-made limber for motorised towing was only 10 km/h. But, the Finnish made special limber allowed motorised towing with speed up to 20 km/h. Weight of the howitzer when ready for transport was about 3,800 kg and the limber used with horses weight some 415-kg. Rate of fire for this howitzer was about 3 shots/minute.

Finland bought 166 of these howitzers from Germany. The first batch, which arrived with S/S Widor in October of 1940, contained 15 howitzers. The shipments of 1941 containing 147 howitzers. The last four howitzers arrived in 1944. Lot of the them arrived in very poor shape. In fact the Germans had considered them almost as scrap, but the Finns still managed to repair them fit for operational use. In fact it seems likely that some of the delivered howitzers were likely disassembled as spare parts as they were not listed in official artillery inventories. As these howitzers were this numerous in Finnish use they saw lot of use with Finnish Field Artillery during Continuation War. They were issued to five Heavy Artillery Battalions (1st, 20th, 25th, 26th and 29th) and saw use with no less then eight Field Artillery Regiments (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 8th, 11th and 14th). Finnish soldiers liked the howitzer, even if seals of its recoil system caused problems in winter and some gun carriages broke down. According original documents at least 14 howitzers were lost in summer of 1944. Five of them belonging to Heavy Artillery Battalion 20 were lost in Vaskisavotta 10th of June. The other lost howitzers were seven howitzers belonging to Field Artillery Regiment 3 and two howitzers belonging to Field Artillery Regiment 11, which were all lost in north/north-east side of Lake Ladoga. After World War 2 the howitzers remained warehoused for possible wartime use and in live-fire training use. The original wheels were replaced with new twin wheels with pneumatic tires in 1960's. As the amount of already manufactured ammunition was quite large the howitzers remained in live-fire training use until 1980's.

Ammunition used with the howitzer was separately loaded type. All ammunition Finnish manuals list for this howitzer were high explosive (HE) type with 7 propellant charge sizes (both full-charge and reduced-charge versions of propellant charges existed). This howitzer was the heavy howitzer model with most shots fired during World War 2 with Finnish Army.

War:

Shots fired:

Winter War (1939-1940)

0

Continuation War (1941-1944)

217644

Total

217644


SOURCES:

Ian Hogg: Twentieth-Century Artillery.

Christopher F. Foss: Artillery of the World.

Military manual: Kenttätykistö ja sen toiminta by T. Ekman (printed 1925).

Military manual: 150 mm. raskas kenttähaupitsi vuodelta 1915 by Puolustusvoimien Pääesikunta Taisteluvälineosasto (printed 1941).

Military manual: 150 H/40, 150 mm raskas kenttähaupitsi, mallia 40, saksalainen (printed 1942).

Military manual: 152 H/09-30, 152 mm raskas kenttähaupitsi, mallia 09-30, venäläinen (printed 1942).

Military manual: Lyhyitä tietoja venäläisestä 152 mm:n raskaasta kenttähaupitsista vuodelta 1937 by Puolustusvoimien pääesikunta taisteluvälineosasto (printed 1941).

Military manual: Lyhyitä tietoja venäläisestä 152 mm:n raskaasta kenttähaupitsista vuodelta 1938 by Puolustusvoimien pääesikunta taisteluvälineosasto (printed 1941).

Military manual: 155 H/17, 155 mm raskas kenttähaupitsi, mallia 17, Schneider (printed 1942).

Military manual: 155 mm:n raskas kenttähaupitsi vuodelta 1917 ja 152 mm:n raskaat kenttähaupitsit vuosilta 1915 ja 1917 by Päämaja, taisteluvälineosasto (printed 1941).

Military manual: Kenttätykistön ampumatarvikkeet by Puolustusvoimien Pääesikunta Taisteluvälineosasto (printed 1940, updates added until 1947).

Military manual: Lyhennetty tykistön ampumatarvikenomenklatuuri (printed 1939).

Documents of Finnish military Archives, archives unit T20207/F16 sal.

Finnish military archives, archive reference T19043/20

Finnish military archives, archive reference T18419

Finnish military archives, archive references T20206/F9, /F10 and /F11

Finnish military archives, archive references T20206/F17 and /F18

Article: Ranskan Suomelle Talvisodan aikana tarjoamasta sotilasavusta by Jukka Nevakivi in Tiede ja ase vol. 34

Article: Hitler-haupitsin tarina by Jyri Paulaharju at Ase-lehti magazine vol. 6/97.

Special thanks to Tykistömuseo (Finnish Artillery Museum, Hämeenlinna).

Special thanks to Sotamuseo (Finnish Military Museum, Helsinki).


Last updated 2nd of November 2013
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