MACHINEGUNS PART 2:

Other machineguns

 

 

6,5 mm machinegun M/14 Schwarzlose:

(6,5 mm kulspruta m/14)

PICTURE: 6.5 mm machinegun M/14 on its tripod. (SA-kuva archive, photo number 113222). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (123 KB).

Calibre:

6,5 mm x 55

Length:

102 cm

Barrel length:

60 cm

Weight:

24,0 kg

Fire-rate:

480/minute

Ammunition belts:

250-round fabric belt

Mount:

Tripod 20 kg

Production:

Some 1,250 manufactured

Country of origin:

Sweden

Finnish use: Swedish (SFK) volunteer unit during Winter War and some Finnish units until early 1944 during Continuation War.

Swedish M/14 machinegun was developed from Austrian 8 mm Schwarzlose M/07-12 machinegun and used Swedish 6,5 mm ammunition. Original designer of Schwarzlose machinegun was Adreas Wilhelm Schwarzlose (1867 - 1936) and the weapon used delayed blowback principle, which is based to use of heavy bolt, powerful main spring and levers. While the structural design was innovative, it also limited the maximum length of gun barrel, which could be safely used in such design. Hence Schwarzlose had to do with shorter gun barrel than its competitors. Thanks to blowback-principle the mechanical design was quite simple and reliable. Like its more successful competitor Maxim-machinegun also Schwarzlose was water-cooled. Rate of fire was around 480 shots/minute and the weapon was fed with 250-round fabric ammunition belts. The manufacturers for m/14 were Steyr and Carl Gustafs Stadts Gevärsfaktori. Total production was about 1,250 machineguns. Browning machinegun designs replaced m/14 first in production and later also in use of Swedish military.

During Winter War Finland bought 12 machineguns of this type. Another source of these weapons was Swedish volunteer unit SFKS (Svenska Frivillig Kåren), which was equipped with standard issue Swedish military small arms financed with donations collected from Swedish citizens during the war. Among military equipment that SFK brought to Finland with its troops were several dozen m/14 machineguns. After taking part in battles during last weeks of Winter War, this volunteer unit returned to Sweden, but left its weaponry to Finnish military. Among the weaponry they left behind were 40 of these machineguns. So in mid 1940 Finnish military had 54 machineguns m/14. By end of year 1940 Finnish military acquire few more, so when Continuation War begun in June of 1941 Finnish military had 70 of them. During Continuation War some Finnish frontline infantry units used M/14 machinegun until they were replaced with 7.62 mm x 54R calibre weapons in 1943 - 1944. Year 1943 Finnish military issued each machinegun m/14 with ten 250 round ammunition belts. Each ammunition belt came with belt can. Other equipment issued with each machinegun included spare barrel and spare bolt. By installing additional extension piece to existing tripod, m/14 could be used as a anti-aircraft machinegun. Small number of this machinegun was also issued to home front units during Continuation War. Finland sold 60 or 61 of m/14 machineguns back to Sweden in 1943 - 1944. The last few remaining m/14 were sold to Interarmco in year 1960 and exported.

 

7,62 mm Colt-Browning M/1895:

(Colt-Browning Machine Gun M.1895)

PICTURE: 7,62 mm Colt M/1895 "potato digger" machinegun. (Photo taken in Sotamuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (36 KB).

Calibre:

7,62 mm x 54 R

Length:

106 cm

Barrel length:

70 cm

Weight:

16,0 kg

Fire-rate:

600 or 300/minute

Ammunition belts:

250-round fabric belt

Mount:

Tripod 25 kg

Production:

1914 - 1917 (?)

Country of origin:

USA

Finnish use: Saw use with both sides during Finnish Civil was in year 1918. Briefly used by Finnish Army in 1918 - 1919, then transferred to Suojeluskunta (Finnish Civil Guard). Remained in its use until sold abroad in 1936.

This machinegun designed by John Browning was one of the very first successful gas-action machineguns, but instead of gas-piston common nowadays it had swinging arm, whose visible movement inspired the nicknames "digger" and "potato digger". However at the time it also caused considerable argument about possible patent infringement concerning Hiram Maxim's patents from 1884. Colt and Marlin-Rockwell factories manufactured these machineguns in Unites States between 1895 - 1919. US Navy used them starting 1890's and they saw battle use in Cuba at 1898. Spain, Italy and US Army also seem to have acquired some before World War 1. British Volunteer mounted units also used some during Boer War. During World War 1 also Belgium, France and Great Britain had them in their use. During that war Marlin-Rockwell manufactured them as M1918 for US Air Corps and some of these seem also been used in armoured vehicles. However when it comes to Finland the most interesting version was M/95-14, which Colt manufactured in calibre 7,62 x 54R for Imperial Russia also during WW1. Quite a large number of M1918 variation was presumably delivered from United States to Great Britain during World War 2 and still saw use as antiaircraft machineguns in British ships. The main reasons for success of this machinegun were its light weight (compared to Maxim machineguns, which were the standard of that time) and relatively good reliability. However the tripod mainly made from bronze was unnecessarily heavy for this weapon limiting its mobility. Ammunition belts the Russians used with the M/95-14 seem to have the same 250-round fabric belts, which they used also in Maxim machineguns of the same calibre.

Finnish White Army captured about 100 of these M/95-14 machineguns during Finnish Civil War of 1918. However in Finland they were known simply as M/1895. After Civil War their most important user in Finland was Suojeluskunta (Finnish Civil Guard), for which they were transferred from bicycle troops and infantry of Finnish Army already in 1919. Suojeluskunta used them from 1919 to 1936. Year 1936 the remaining Colt M/1895 machineguns were sold abroad. During World War 2 Finnish military noticed, that some 2nd line Red Army units were still using these machineguns at that time. However if any were captured they don't seem to have seen any use with Finnish military at that time.

 

7,62 mm machinegun DS-39:

(Degtjarev Stankovyj 39)

PICTURE: 7,62 mm DS-39 machinegun with its tripod and shield. (Photo taken in Sotamuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (32 KB).

Calibre:

7,62 mm x 54 R

Length:

117 cm

Barrel length:

72,3 cm

Weight:

14,3 cm

Fire-rate:

600/minute

Ammunition belts:

250-round fabric belt, after Lahti's modification also

200-round Finnish metallic belt could be used

Mount:

Tripod 11 kg

Prototype:

1930

Production:

Bit over 10,300 made 1939 - 1941

Country of origin:

Soviet Union, Finnish modification

Finnish use: Bit fewer than 200 captured by Finnish troops (mostly in 1941). During Continuation War issued to Finnish frontline troops.

Also Soviets had noticed that Maxim machinegun was too heavy to be effective in offensive use. DS-39 (Degtjarev Stankovyj 39) machinegun designed by V.A. Degtjarev was one try to solve this problem. Degtjarev made the first prototype in year 1930 and the test-series manufactured in year 1934 was tested several years. Degtjarev improved the design with help of test results and while these improvements later proved lacking the Soviets seemingly did not spot them at that time. So they decided to replace Maxim machinegun in production with DS-39 machinegun in 22nd of October 1939. This decision soon proved too hasty. Indeed, DS-39 was lighter and it was structurally simpler than Maxim machinegun, but it also had serious reliability problems. The basic reason behind the problems was the rimmed 7.62 mm x 54R cartridge, which demands more complicated feeding system in belt-fed weapons than its non-rimmed competitors. Also fabric ammunition belts (the same ones that the Soviets used in their Maxim machineguns) that the Soviets still used with DS-39 probably didn't exactly help in reliability either. The weapon came with new light tripod, which Degtjarev had designed especially for this machinegun. This tripod was otherwise good, but proved problematic when it was set to its highest setting. With its this setting the machinegun placed on it balanced poorly and proved to have excessive muzzle-climb. So do to these factors using the machinegun for anti-aircraft use was difficult.

Tech-wise DS-39 (Stankovyj = with mount) was full-automatic only gas-action weapon with adjustable gas-regulator. It was air-cooled and looked bit like smaller version of 12.7-mm DShK heavy machinegun (to which it was partially based). By adding spring-loaded buffer to the mechanism the weapons rate-of-fire could be doubled (to 1,200 shots / minute) for antiaircraft use, but this doesn't seem to have been popular - almost certainly because with it the already existing reliability problems got a whole new magnitude. Structurally (especially when it came to its bolt) this machinegun was based also to DP light machinegun, which Degtjarev had designed earlier. Eventually the Soviets noticed the problems and tried fixing them, but in June of 1941 Germany invaded Soviet Union and they run out of time for improvements. In that situation the Soviets decided to stop manufacturing of DS-39 and to return old, heavy and complicated but reliable Maxim machinegun back to production. Tula Arsenal was the only manufacturer of DS-39 machinegun, it manufactured 10,345 of them between June of 1940 and June of 1941. From those 10,345 machineguns it made 6,628 in year 1940 and 3,717 in year 1941. Some changes were made during the production. Maybe the most notable of these were changes made to barrel attachment system. In the old version the barrel was locked with screw and screwdriver was needed for replacing barrel. In the new version the barrel was locked with a switch and no tools were required for replacing barrel. Another part going through changes during manufacturing was safety-switch. Due to weapons shortage following German attack in 1941 the Soviets issued also DS-39 machineguns to 2nd line troops of their Red Army. After World War 2 they presumably scrapped their remaining DS-39 machineguns. Year 1943 Soviets introduced new SG-43 machinegun, which proved to be the worthy replacement of old Maxim. Year 1942 Degtjarev still came up with improved version prototype of DS-39, but in testing the Soviets organised in May of 1943 the SG-43 prototype proved more reliable and durable than the improved DS-39.

Finnish troops captured bit under 200 machineguns of this type (most of them in 1941) during Continuation War. Also Finnish troops soon noticed the reliability problems these weapons. Aimo Lahti studied captured DS-39 machinegun and in year 1942 he planned it 8 improvements, which considerably reduced the problem. Maybe the most important improvement was decelerator switch, which was added to the weapon's bolt, as the original high rate-of-fire had proved related to reliability problems. Other improvements included making gas-piston thinner (otherwise it typically jam the weapon after only 1,000 shots or so) and adding chamber for soot in end of gas-piston (otherwise the soot could jam gas-piston after some 4,000 - 5,000 shots). Holes of gas-regulator were also increased in size to allow more gas getting to gas-piston and angle of contact piece was changed. In addition also firing pin was thinned. The last but not least of improvements was modifying the weapon's feeding system so that Finnish 200-round metal ammunition belts M/32 could be used. While these Finnish improvements reduced reliability problems of DS-39 in some extent, they failed solving the basic problem - the feeding system of this machinegun had been poorly designed and it simply didn't work well. Late 1942 Finnish military withdraw all captured DS-39 machineguns from the troops and sent them to VKT (Valtion Kivääritehdas = State Rifle Factory), where this 8-part improvement plan was implemented. After making these improvements the machineguns were re-issued to Finnish frontline troops. While not part of the improvement plan Finnish military removed the attachment of optical sight from the captured DS-39 (it seems that the optical sights belonging to these weapons were not captured - at least not in real numbers). Finnish soldiers also usually removed the weapon's shield, as the protection it offered was highly questionable. Year 1943 Finnish Army typically issued either 20 250-round fabric belts or 25 200-round steel belts with each DS-39 machinegun. In its highest the number of DS-39 in Finnish use peaked to 175 and after 2nd World War 145 of them still remained. During Continuation War Finnish frontline troops used these machineguns. After World War 2 the remaining DS-39 were warehoused until being declared obsolete year 1986 and mainly scrapped. Nowadays unknown number of Finnish-captured DS-39 machineguns remains in Finnish military museums and collections of Finnish collectors.

 

7,62 mm and 7,70 mm Vickers Machineguns:

(Gun, Machine, Vickers, Mark I)

PICTURE: Vickers medium machinegun with its tripod. (SA-kuva archive, photo number 113226). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (162 KB).

Calibre:

7,62 mm x 54 R / 7,70 mm x 56 R (.303 British)

Length:

110 cm / 115,6 cm

Barrel length:

72,1 cm

Weight:

15 kg

Fire-rate:

450 - 500/minute

Ammunition belts:

250-round fabric belt

Mount:

Tripod 22,5 kg

Country of origin:

Great Britain

Finnish use: About 100 used by Finnish Navy (coastal troops) and home front units during World War 2.

Vickers machinegun was British further development based to earlier Maxim machineguns. "Maxim Gun Company" and "Nordenfelt Guns and Ammunition Company" merged already on turning into "Maxim Nordenfelt Guns and Ammunition Company". Later the Company was re-named "Vickers Son and Maxim" until 1911 it was finally renamed as "Vickers Ltd". Starting year 1901 the machineguns made by this company were no longer named after Maxim, but Vickers. Models 1901 and 1906 had several important improvements, most important of which likely was adjustment for headspace (of cartridge). At the same time old bronze parts were replaced with ones made from steel and aluminium, which lightened the weapon considerably. However "Vickers C" introduced in 1912 was the first to have the most defining differences to previous Maxim machinegun - locking mechanism and receiver. George Buckham was the designer, who came with the idea of turning locking mechanism upside down and adding angled tail to toggle arm. With this change the locking mechanism required less space, which allowed height of the weapons receiver to be reduced prominently. In fact this the feature from which Maxim and Vickers machineguns can be maybe most easily separated - while receiver of Maxim extends notably below water jacket the Vickers receiver is only about the same height as its water jacket. Once manufacturing of Vickers started in 1912 it continued until end of World War 2 and their most important user, British Army, kept using them until 1960's. Also air-cooled versions (mainly for aircraft) were manufactured starting 1916 and were still quite common during World War 2. Besides these rifle-calibre machineguns Vickers manufactured also (quite rare) .50 calibre version and automatic guns based to these designs in 37-mm (1-pound) and 40-mm (2-pound)caliber. During World War 1 Colt factory in United States manufactured one variation of this machinegun in 7.62 mm x 54R calibre for Russia. Few of them ended up to Russian troops, which were stationed in Finland in year 1918.

Naturally Finnish troops captured these few machineguns, which were transferred (along with other mixed weaponry) to Suojeluskunta (Finnish Civil Guard) in 1920's. Few more Vickers machineguns arrived to Finland with mixed materials from various weapons deals of 1920's and their number reached few dozen. Early 1930's VKT (Valtion Kivääritehdas = State Rifle Factory) modified 49 of Vickers machineguns as aircraft weapons. During World War 2 some Finnish aircraft were still armed with these modified and foreign made Vickers aircraft machineguns. However during Continuation War Finnish Air Force used most of these modified machineguns as antiaircraft machineguns with improvised mounts. During Winter War Great Britain donated 100 machineguns in .303 British calibre to Finnish Army. During Continuation War Finnish Army also captured few more Vickers machineguns (which had earlier belonged to Latvian military) from the Soviets. During Continuation War Vickers machineguns were issued to coastal troops and home front units. Also some of these machineguns of infantry seem to have been used as antiaircraft machineguns in the home front during the war. Year 1943 Finnish military issued typically 20 250-round belts with each Vickers machinegun. After the war remaining Vickers machineguns stayed warehoused until being sold to abroad year 1956.

 

7,92 mm Maxim MG-08:

(Maschinengewehr 08)

PICTURE: 7,92 mm Maxim MG-08 machinegun manufactured in 1918 with the typical "Schlitten 08" mount. (Photo taken in Sotamuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (33 KB).

Calibre:

7,92 mm x 57 JS

Length:

117,5 cm

Barrel length:

72 cm

Weight:

18,4 kg

Fire-rate:

300 - 450/minute

Ammunition belts:

250-round fabric belt (*)

Mount:

32,3 kg

Production:

1908 - 1918

Country of origin:

Germany

(*) Standard issue ammunition belts came in sections 50 rounds long and seem to have usually been attached as 250-round ammunition belts.

Finnish use: Used by troops of German Baltic Sea Division (Ostsee Division) in Finnish Civil War of 1918. About 1,000 used by Finnish coastal troops during Continuation War. During late Continuation War relatively small number also used by fortification units.

Just like in Russia Hiram Maxim demonstrated his machinegun to German VIP's in 1888 and seemed have better success than in Russia. Series of samples were delivered to Germany in 1889 and early 1890's for tests and in agreement about license production was signed in 1892. Production of Maxim designed machineguns started for German Navy in 1894 and for German Army in 1899. German Army called this first version as MG-99, which was soon developed to new version called MG-01.

Neither MG-99 nor MG-01 was produced in large numbers and staff of German Army was not exactly favourable to them. Just like in Russia the Russian - Japanese War of 1904 - 1905 changed things. It changed attitudes of German Army personnel and made Germans to introduce improved MG-08 version of Maxim machinegun and arrange it to mass-production. German MG-08 had unique mount, called "Schlitten 08", which offered handy possibility of dragging the machinegun on top of its mount to fire position. German military started World War 1 with some 12,500 MG-08 machineguns. One of the clauses of Versailles treaty banned further development of water-cooled machineguns from Germany and also limited number of machineguns in German use, this lead MG-08 spreading to use of several countries just after 1st World War.

First visit of MG-08 to Finland was during Civil War of 1918. German Baltic Sea Division that participated to last phases of this war had MG-08 among its weaponry and it is possible that some were also in White Army use, as small number is known to have remained in Finland after that war. Among weapons purchased from France in 1919 were also about 100 MG-08 machineguns, however most MG-08 were sold to Poland already in 1924 (in this trade Finland gave Poland weapons in 7,92 mm x 57 and got weapons in 7,62 mm x 54 R in exchange). The last ones were sold abroad in early 1930's.

Finland re-introduced MG-08 to its weaponry by buying 998 in June of 1941 from Germany. They arrived in 14th of June 1941. During Continuation War these weapons were issued to Coastal Troops and later smaller number also saw use with fortification units (Finnish bunker machinegun-mount M/40 was designed suitable both to Finnish/Russian/Soviet Maxims and German MG-08). When delivered to Finland in June of 1941 many of the MG-08 were in bad shape to begin with (what else can one expect from pre-1918 made weapons that had fought a war or two), but losses were still remarkably small during the war. June of 1944 still 982 of the original 998 were in use. Year 1943 Finnish military typically issued each MG-08 with 100 50-round belts, which were normally attached to each other to create 20 250-round belts. Other equipment normally issued for each weapon included two spare barrels, two spare bolts, optical sight, seven water cans and anti-aircraft equipment. Soon after World War 2 those in worst shape were wrecked and by 1951 the number of MG-08 remaining warehoused for the Finnish military had dropped to 620. Finally the remaining MG-08 machineguns were sold to Interarmco around 1959 - 1960 and transported abroad.

 

7,92 mm "light" machineguns M/08-15 and M/08-18:

(MG 08/15) aka (Maschinengewehr 08/15)

(MG 08/18) aka (Maschinengewehr 08/18)

PICTURE: 7,92 mm Maxim M/08-15 machinegun with its bipod. (Photo taken in Sotamuseo). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (29 KB).

Calibre:

7,92 mm x 57 JS

Length:

142 cm

Barrel length:

72 cm

Weight:

15 kg (M/08-15) / 13,5 kg (M/08-18)

Fire-rate:

450/minute

Ammunition belts:

50, 100 and 250-round fabric belts

Mount:

Bipod 1 kg

Country of origin:

Germany

Finnish use: Used by German Baltic Sea Division (Ostsee Division) in Finnish Civil War of 1918. Few dozen remained in Finland after Civil War. Finland bought additional 350 from France. They were all sold abroad around 1931 - 1933. No longer in Finnish use during World War 2.

During WW1 it become apparent to Germans that ordinary Maxim MG-08 was too heavy and clumsy to be carried fast from one place to another. So lighter version MG 08/15 was developed, it was basically a "thinned" ad-hoc design. Heavy mount had been replaced with bipod, structure of whole weapon had been lightened, pistol grip and butt had replaced the "shovel-grips" and the design had been designed to carry shorter ammunition belts of 50 and 100 rounds in its side. Weight of weapon-system dropped from 55-kg to "mere" 15-kg. However, MG 08/15 was still hardly practical light machinegun, so further development was continued. This development resulted to introduction of MG 08/18 in year 1918. Major improvement introduced with MG 08/18 was replacing water barrel-jacket with air-cooled barrel-jacket which dropped yet another 1,5-kg from its weight. From these two machineguns MG 08/15 was issued to German front-line infantry in reasonable numbers around 1917 - 1918, while MG 08/18 was issued only to some units of cavalry, mountain troops and bicycle troops in year 1918. German industry manufactured about 130,000 MG 08/15 during World War 1, while number of manufactured MG 08/18 was much smaller.

PICTURE: Finnish soldiers of Karjalan Kaartin Rykmentti (Carelian Guard Regiment) posing with machineguns in 1920's. Forefront is 7,92 mm Maxim M/08-18 machinegun on its bipod. The machineguns on the back are Maxim M/09-21 (Photo owned by Jaeger Platoon Website). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (53 KB).

German Baltic Sea Division (Ostsee Division) that participated in Finnish Civil War of 1918 left behind few dozen M/08-15 machineguns. Summer of 1919 Finns bought additional 350 "light" machineguns M/08-15 and M/08-18 from France (Bit over 250 of these weapons were M/08-15 and bit less than 100 were M/08-18). Few more arrived among other weapons bought by Finnish military in 1920's. So year 1929 Finnish Armed Forces had 340 M/08-15 and 112 M/08-08 machineguns. Finnish Army issued these weapons mainly to its infantry units, where they were used by 4-man teams. When production of Lahti-Saloranta M/26 light machinegun started in 1928 the need of keeping these 7,92 mm "light" machineguns was reduced, this lead to M/08-15 and M/08-15 machineguns being sold abroad between 1931 - 1933. While typical ammunition belt for German Maxim machineguns was 250-round fabric belt these machineguns had also other options for feeding them. "Belt pouch M/15" typically used with M/08-15 contained 100-round ammunition belt and "belt pouch M/18" usually used with M/08-18 contained 50-round ammunition belt.

PICTURE: Receiver area of 7,92 mm Maxim M/08-18 machinegun (Photo provided by MRB and taken in Polish Military Museum, Warsaw). CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (109 KB).

 

SOME OTHER MACHINEGUNS USED BY FINNISH MILITARY:

8 mm Hotchkiss M/1914 (Hotchkiss Mle 1914): This French medium machinegun was designed in 1890's by Laurence V. Benet and Henri Mercíe from a earlier (unsuccessful) effort by Austrian Baron Adolph von Odkolek von Augeza. If compared to Maxim, which for all practical purposes was the standard medium machinegun of that time, the two had very little in common. While also most Hotchkiss were likely issued with tripods, the gun itself was air-cooled gas-action automatic firing from an open bolt. As if that had not been enough ammunition feed of Hotchkiss MG used feed strips instead of more common ammunition belts. The first functional version of Hotchkiss-machinegun was introduced in year 1895, but that version was sold only in relatively small numbers. The improved Mle 1900 version did bit better with large export deal to Japan, which used them successfully in Russian - Japanese War of 1904 - 1905. But the real success didn't come until with the easier to manufacture Mle 1914, which was manufactured in massive numbers during World War 1. Replacing earlier St.Étinne Mle 1907, it became the standard issue medium machinegun for French Army and also saw use with British and American troops.

Finnish Army used Hotchkiss M/1914 machineguns only in machinegun-armed version of Renault FT 17 tanks in 1919 - 1937. These machineguns were chambered to French 8 mm x 50R Lebel cartridge, which at that time Finnish Army didn't use in any other weapons. While Hotchkiss M/1914 seems to have gained rather good reputation for reliability in many countries, Finnish Army found it unreliable. This may be result of problems with lubrication - apparently it was typically used with plenty of gun-oil, but this would have worked poorly with typical freezing Finnish winter temperatures. What ever the reason, Hotchkiss M/1914 gathered such a poor reputation among Finnish military, that Finnish main weapons designer Aimo Lahti found gaining approval for his gas-action weapons problematic in 1930's. Even if also 250-round ammunition belt was developed for Hotchkiss M/1914 before end of World War 1, Finnish Army seems to have used these machineguns with (24- and/or 30-round) feed strips. Year 1937 Finnish Army replaced Hotchkiss-machineguns used as armament of Renault FT 17 tanks with air-cooled 7.62 mm Maxim M/09-31 machineguns. Still that same year the last remaining 20 Hotchkiss-machineguns were sold to Transbaltic Oy, which exported them from Finland.

 


SUGGESTED LINKS FOR MORE INFO:

The Vickers Machinegun Gun, excellent website about Vickers machineguns.

Gothia Weapons Historical Society website, contains page with more info about m/14 machineguns.

German-language website about MG 08 and MG 08/15.


SOURCES:

Markku Palokangas: Sotilaskäsiaseet Suomessa 1918 - 1988, 1 - 3 (Military Small Arms in Finland 1918 - 1988 parts 1 - 3)

Timo Hyytinen: Arma Fennica 2, sotilasaseet (Arma Fennica 2, military weapons)

D.N. Bolotin: Soviet Small-Arms and Ammunition.

Roger Ford: The World's Great Machineguns.

Machine Guns of the World War 1 by Robert Bruce.

Small Arms of the World by E.C. Ezell.

Terry Garder & Peter Chamberlain: Small arms, artillery and special weapons of the third reich

Military manual: Kevyt Konekivääri by Puolustusministeriö (printed 1923).

Article: Asekummajainen itänaapurista, konekivääri DS39 by Matti Ingman in Ase-lehti magazine vol. 3/90.

Special thanks to Sotamuseo (Finnish Military Museum), Helsinki


Last updated 8th of September 2013
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